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稻虾共作模式对涝渍稻田土壤理化性状的影响

佀国涵 彭成林 徐祥玉 徐大兵 袁家富 李金华

佀国涵, 彭成林, 徐祥玉, 徐大兵, 袁家富, 李金华. 稻虾共作模式对涝渍稻田土壤理化性状的影响[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2017, 25(1): 61-68. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.160661
引用本文: 佀国涵, 彭成林, 徐祥玉, 徐大兵, 袁家富, 李金华. 稻虾共作模式对涝渍稻田土壤理化性状的影响[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2017, 25(1): 61-68. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.160661
SI Guohan, PENG Chenglin, XU Xiangyu, XU Dabing, YUAN Jiafu, LI Jinhua. Effect of integrated rice-crayfish farming system on soil physico-chemical properties in waterlogged paddy soils[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2017, 25(1): 61-68. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.160661
Citation: SI Guohan, PENG Chenglin, XU Xiangyu, XU Dabing, YUAN Jiafu, LI Jinhua. Effect of integrated rice-crayfish farming system on soil physico-chemical properties in waterlogged paddy soils[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2017, 25(1): 61-68. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.160661

稻虾共作模式对涝渍稻田土壤理化性状的影响

doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.160661
基金项目: 

国家科技支撑计划项目 2013BAD07B10

国家重点研发计划项目 2016YFD0200807

湖北省自然科学基金项目 2015CFC894

湖北省农业科技创新中心项目 2011-620-003-03-063

详细信息
    作者简介:

    佀国涵, 主要从事土壤生态系统养分循环方面的研究。E-mail:siguoh@qq.com

    通讯作者:

    袁家富, 主要从事植物营养与土壤保育方面研究。E-mail:fu1682@sina.com

  • 中图分类号: S181;S153

Effect of integrated rice-crayfish farming system on soil physico-chemical properties in waterlogged paddy soils

Funds: 

the National Key Technologies R & D Project 2013BAD07B10

the National Key Research and Development Project of China 2016YFD0200807

the Natural Science Foundation of Hubei Province 2015CFC894

the Fund of Agricultural Science and Technology Innovation Centre of Hubei Province 2011-620-003-03-063

More Information
  • 摘要: 稻虾共作模式是一种以涝渍水田为基础,以种稻为中心,稻草还田养虾为特点的复合生态系统。本文通过10年(2005-2015年)定位试验,以中稻单作模式为对照,研究了稻虾共作模式对0~10 cm、10~20 cm、20~30 cm和30~40 cm土层土壤理化性状以及水稻产量的影响;采用投入产出法,评估了稻虾共作模式的经济效益。结果表明,长期稻虾共作模式显著降低了15~30 cm土层的土壤紧实度,其在15 cm、20 cm、25 cm和30 cm处的土壤紧实度较中稻单作模式分别降低了20.9%、29.9%、24.8%和14.7%。长期稻虾共作模式提高了0~40 cm土层中>0.25 mm水稳性团聚体数量、平均质量直径和几何平均直径,但降低了0~20 cm土层的团聚体分形维数。相对于中稻单作模式,长期稻虾共作模式显著提高了0~40 cm土层有机碳、全钾和碱解氮含量,0~30 cm土层全氮含量,0~10 cm土层全磷和速效磷含量以及20~40 cm土层速效钾含量。稻虾共作模式显著降低了0~10 cm土层还原性物质总量,但提高了20~30 cm土层土壤还原性物质总量。稻虾共作模式的水稻产量较中稻单作模式显著提高,增幅为9.5%,其总产值、利润和产投比较中稻单作模式分别增加了46 818.0元·hm-2、40 188.0元·hm-2和100.0%。可见稻虾共作模式改善了土壤结构,增加了土壤养分,提高了水稻产量以及经济效益,但增加了10 cm以下土层潜育化的风险。
  • 表  1  稻虾共作模式对不同土层深度土壤紧实度的影响

    Table  1.   Effect of integrated rice-crayfish system on soil compaction in different soil layers

    kPa
    处理Treatment 土层深度Soil depth (cm)
    5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
    MR 165.42±43.37a 318.55±37.12a 589.07±64.67a 813.39±139.82a 903.72±97.58a 922.35±80.83a 897.99±132.63a 941.78±137.64a
    CR 156.53±30.72a 331.14±22.32a 462.06±79.38b 558.68±112.45b 672.27±69.06b 780.96±75.54b 850.23±74.11a 907.73±83.41a
    同列数据后不同字母表示处理间差异达5%显著水平。CR:稻虾共作模式; MR:中稻单作模式。Values followed by different letters in a column are significantly different at 5% level. CR: integrated rice-crayfish system; MR: rice monoculture system.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  稻虾共作模式对不同土层深度土壤水稳性团聚体稳定性指标的影响s

    Table  2.   Effect of integrated rice-crayfish system on the stability index of soil water-stable aggregate in different soil layers

    土层深度Soil depth (cm) > 0.25 mm的团聚体数量(R0.25) Content of aggregate > 0.25 mm (%) 平均质量直径(MWD) Mean weight diameter (mm) 几何平均直径(GMD) Geometric mean diameter (mm) 分形维数(D) Fractal dimension
    MR CR MR CR MR CR MR CR
    0~10 72.06±6.37a 78.23±6.18a 1.60±1.60b 2.0±0.31a 0.74±0.08b 1.04±0.12a 2.59±0.05a 2.58±0.03a
    10~20 66.14±6.30a 72.54±8.34a 1.47±0.19a 1.67±0.17a 0.61±0.04a 0.76±0.08a 2.61±0.07a 2.58±0.02a
    20~30 67.37±3.06a 69.28±4.22a 1.12±0.91a 1.49±0.26a 0.50±0.08a 0.62±0.07a 2.61±0.04a 2.61±0.05a
    30~40 58.48±4.89a 67.81±3.44a 1.08±0.11b 1.45±0.14a 0.40±0.04b 0.59±0.01a 2.60±0.01a 2.59±0.05a
    CR:稻虾共作模式; MR:中稻单作模式。同行数据后不同字母表示处理间差异达5%显著水平。CR: integrated rice-crayfish system; MR: rice monoculture system. Values of the same index followed by different letters in a row are significantly different at 5% level.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  稻虾共作模式对不同土层深度土壤全量养分的影响

    Table  3.   Effect of integrated rice-crayfish system on soil total nutrients contents in different soil layers

    土层深度Soil depth (cm) 有机碳Organic carbon (g×kg-1) 全氮Total N (g×kg-1) 全磷Total P (g×kg-1) 全钾Total K (g×kg-) C/N
    MR CR MR CR MR CR MR CR MR CR
    0~10 15.66±148b 20.90±0.81a 1.94±0.22b 2.52±0.28a 0.41±0.01b 0.45±0.02a 1.73±0.25b 1.82±0.09a 8.09±0.18a 8.35±0.69a
    10~20 14.15±0.86b 17.34±1.17a 1.70±0.13b 2.09±0.19a 0.40±0.02a 0.43±0.01a 1.76±0.19b 1.85±0.15a 8.34±0.32a 8.32±1.05a
    20~30 11.50±1.28b 15.73±1.73a 1.44±0.12b 1.85±0.18a 0.38±0.02a 0.37±0.05a 1.71±0.34b 1.86±0.20a 7.98±0.37a 8.47±0.52a
    30~40 7.72±0.87b 10.16±0.99a 0.94±0.07a 1.13±0.12a 0.34±0.03a 0.34±0.04a 1.73±0.56b 1.90±0.64a 8.17±0.47a 9.02±0.35a
    CR:稻虾共作模式; MR:中稻单作模式。同行数据后不同字母表示处理间差异达5%显著水平。CR: integrated rice-crayfish system; MR: rice monoculture system. Values of the same index followed by different letters in a row are significantly different at 5% level.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  稻虾共作模式对不同土层深度土壤pH和速效养分的影响

    Table  4.   Effect of integrated rice-crayfish system on soil pH and available nutrients contents in different soil layers

    土层深度Soil depth (cm) pH 碱解氮Available N (mg×kg-1) 速效磷Available P (mg×kg-1) 速效钾Available K (mg×kg-1)
    MR CR MR CR MR CR MR CR
    0~10 7.17±0.13a 7.29±0.04a 141.06±8.06b 188.75±26.09a 7.39±1.24b 10.10±0.54a 192.07±17.75a 189.64±6.71a
    10~20 7.20±0.08a 7.34±0.04a 130.47±6.07b 167.33±16.12a 9.32±0.91a 8.64±1.11a 175.02±13.36a 184.36±6.33a
    20~30 7.21±0.11a 7.38±0.06a 102.21±5.94b 146.80±24.15a 7.70±0.51a 8.31±1.19a 160.00±4.39b 184.36±6.45a
    30~40 7.31±0.11a 7.45±0.05a 65.79±5.55b 89.41±9.97a 5.54±1.23a 5.83±0.69a 145.38±11.16b 178.68±2.81a
    CR:稻虾共作模式; MR:中稻单作模式。同行数据后不同字母表示处理间差异达5%显著水平。CR: integrated rice-crayfish system; MR: rice monoculture system. Values of the same index followed by different letters in a row are significantly different at 5% level.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  稻虾共作模式对不同土层深度土壤还原性物质的影响

    Table  5.   Effect of integrated rice-crayfish system on soil reducing substances contents in different soil layers

    土层深度Soil depth (cm) Fe2+ (cmol·kg-1) Mn2+ (cmol·kg-1) 还原性物质总量Total amount of reducing substance (cmol·kg-1)
    MR CR MR CR MR CR
    0~10 0.062±0.009b 0.075±0.005a 0.022±0.004a 0.018±0.003a 0.214±0.032a 0.131±0.014b
    10~20 0.062±0.007b 0.100±0.010a 0.020±0.003a 0.023±0.004a 0.171±0.024a 0.184±0.024a
    20~30 0.084±0.010a 0.097±0.009a 0.028±0.005a 0.025±0.005a 0.141±0.022b 0.286±0.513a
    30~40 0.048±0.007b 0.073±0.009a 0.017±0.002a 0.020±0.002a 0.094±0.016a 0.122±0.019a
    CR:稻虾共作模式; MR:中稻单作模式。同行数据后不同字母表示处理间差异达5%显著水平。CR: integrated rice-crayfish system; MR: rice monoculture system. Values of the same index followed by different letters in a row are significantly different at 5% level.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  稻虾共作模式对水稻产量及经济效益的影响

    Table  6.   Effect of integrated rice-crayfish system on rice yield and economic benefit

    处理
    Treatment
    水稻Rice 克氏原鳌虾Procambarus clarkii 总产值
    Total output value
    (¥·hm-2)
    总投入
    Total input value
    (¥·hm-2)
    利润
    Profit
    (¥·hm-2)
    产投比
    Ratio of
    output to input
    产量
    Yield
    (kg·hm-2)
    产值
    Output value
    (¥·hm-2)
    投入
    Input value
    (¥·hm-2)
    产量
    Yield
    (kg·hm-2)
    产值
    Output value
    (¥·hm-2)
    投入
    Input value
    (¥·hm-2)
    MR 7 933.5±748.1b 19 040.4±1795.5b 9 075.0 - - - 19 040.4 9 075.0 9 965.4 2.1
    CR 8 691.0±460.6a 20 858.4±1105.5a 9 075.0 2 250.0 45 000.0 6 630.0 65 858.4 15 705.0 50 153.4 4.2
    CR:稻虾共作模式; MR:中稻单作模式。水稻季投入包括整地、育苗、化肥农药和收割等4项费用, 价格分别为1 275 ¥·hm-2、2 550¥·hm-2、4 350¥·hm-2和900 ¥·hm-2; 克氏原鳌虾养殖季投入包括虾苗、饲料和稻田工程改造折旧等3项费用, 价格分别为2 250¥·hm-2、3 000¥·hm-2和1 380¥·hm-2; 水稻按照2.4 ¥·kg-1计算, 克氏原鳌虾按照20 ¥·kg-1计算。同列数据后不同字母表示处理间差异达5%显著水平。CR: integrated rice-crayfish system; MR: rice monoculture system. Input value of rice season includes the expense of land preparation, grow seedling, fertilizer & pesticide and harvesting, whose prices are 1 275¥·hm-2, 2 550 ¥·hm-2, 4 350 ¥·hm-2 and 900 ¥·hm-2, respectively. Input value of Procambarus clarkiicultivation season includes the expense of young crayfish, feed and depreciation of paddy fields reconstruction, whose prices are 2 250¥·hm-2, 3 000¥·hm-2 and 1 380¥·hm-2, respectively. The price of rice is 2.4 ¥·kg-1, and the price of Procambarus clarkiiis 20¥·kg-1.
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2016-07-28
  • 录用日期:  2016-09-07
  • 刊出日期:  2017-01-01

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