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不同作物秸秆在旱地和水田中的腐解特性及养分释放规律

代文才 高明 兰木羚 黄容 王金柱 王子芳 韩晓飞

代文才, 高明, 兰木羚, 黄容, 王金柱, 王子芳, 韩晓飞. 不同作物秸秆在旱地和水田中的腐解特性及养分释放规律[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2017, 25(2): 188-199. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.160748
引用本文: 代文才, 高明, 兰木羚, 黄容, 王金柱, 王子芳, 韩晓飞. 不同作物秸秆在旱地和水田中的腐解特性及养分释放规律[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2017, 25(2): 188-199. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.160748
DAI Wencai, GAO Ming, LAN Muling, HUANG Rong, WANG Jinzhu, WANG Zifang, HAN Xiaofei. Nutrient release patterns and decomposition characteristics of different crop straws in drylands and paddy fields[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2017, 25(2): 188-199. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.160748
Citation: DAI Wencai, GAO Ming, LAN Muling, HUANG Rong, WANG Jinzhu, WANG Zifang, HAN Xiaofei. Nutrient release patterns and decomposition characteristics of different crop straws in drylands and paddy fields[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2017, 25(2): 188-199. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.160748

不同作物秸秆在旱地和水田中的腐解特性及养分释放规律

doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.160748
基金项目: 

国家“十二五”科技支撑计划课题 2012BAD14B18

详细信息
    通讯作者:

    高明,主要从事土壤质量与环境和土地整理方面的研究。E-mail:gaoming@swu.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: S141.4

Nutrient release patterns and decomposition characteristics of different crop straws in drylands and paddy fields

Funds: 

the National Key Technologies R&D Program of China 2012BAD14B18

More Information
  • 摘要: 以水稻、小麦、玉米秸秆和油菜、蚕豆青秆为研究对象,采用尼龙网袋法,研究了不同秸秆翻埋入旱地和水田后的腐解特性及养分释放规律,以期为紫色丘陵区农业秸秆循环利用和秸秆还田技术提供理论依据。结果表明:秸秆翻埋还田后,5种供试秸秆腐解速率均表现为前期(0~60 d)快、后期(60~360 d)慢。经过360 d的腐解,旱地秸秆累积腐解率为52.88%~75.80%,表现为油菜 > 水稻 > 玉米 > 小麦 > 蚕豆趋势,且蚕豆青秆累积腐解率显著低于其余秸秆;水田中秸秆累积腐解率为45.01%~62.12%,表现为水稻 > 玉米 > 小麦 > 油菜 > 蚕豆趋势。5种秸秆在旱地和水田中养分释放率均表现为钾 > 磷 > 氮 > 碳,在试验终点,旱地中秸秆碳、氮、磷和钾释放率分别为65.50%~87.37%、54.64%~69.72%、89.65%~98.96%和79.92%~96.63%,且油菜秸秆养分释放率高于其他4种秸秆;水田中秸秆碳、氮、磷、钾释放率变幅分别为49.95%~69.57%、32.89%~77.11%、90.70%~96.80%、77.45%~90.47%。总体表现为秸秆在旱地土壤中的累积腐解率和养分释放率均大于水田,旱地油菜和水稻秸秆较易腐解,水田水稻和玉米秸秆较易腐解释;秸秆中钾素释放速率较高。
  • 图  1  不同作物秸秆在旱地(a)和水田(b)中腐解率的变化特征

    XM: 小麦秸秆; SD: 水稻秸秆; YM: 玉米秸秆; YC: 油菜青秆; CD: 蚕豆青秆。XM: wheat straw; SD: rice straw; YM: corn straw; YC: rapeseed green stalk; CD: broad bean green stalk.

    Figure  1.  Variations of straw decomposition rates of different crops straws in dryland (a) and paddy field (db)

    图  2  不同秸秆在旱地(a)和水田(b)中碳释放率的变化特征

    XM: 小麦秸秆; SD: 水稻秸秆; YM: 玉米秸秆; YC: 油菜青秆; CD: 蚕豆青秆。XM: wheat straw; SD: rice straw; YM: corn straw; YC: rapeseed green stalk; CD: broad bean green stalk.

    Figure  2.  Variations of carbon release rates of different crops straws in dryland (a) and paddy field (b)

    图  3  不同秸秆在旱地(a)和水田(b)中氮释放率的变化特征

    XM: 小麦秸秆; SD: 水稻秸秆; YM: 玉米秸秆; YC: 油菜青秆; CD: 蚕豆青秆。XM: wheat straw; SD: rice straw; YM: corn straw; YC: rapeseed green stalk; CD: broad bean green stalk.

    Figure  3.  Variations of nitrogen release rates of different crops straws in dryland (a) and paddy field (b)

    图  4  不同秸秆在旱地(a)和水田(b)中磷释放率的变化特征

    XM: 小麦秸秆; SD: 水稻秸秆; YM: 玉米秸秆; YC: 油菜青秆; CD: 蚕豆青秆。XM: wheat straw; SD: rice straw; YM: corn straw; YC: rapeseed green stalk; CD: broad bean green stalk.

    Figure  4.  Variations of phosphorus release rates of different crops straws in dryland (a) and paddy field (b)

    图  5  不同秸秆在旱地(a)和水田(b)中钾释放率的变化特征

    XM: 小麦秸秆; SD: 水稻秸秆; YM: 玉米秸秆; YC: 油菜青秆; CD: 蚕豆青秆。XM: wheat straw; SD: rice straw; YM: corn straw; YC: rapeseed green stalk; CD: broad bean green stalk.

    Figure  5.  Variations of potassium release rates of different crop straws in dryland (a) and paddy field (b)

    表  1  供试土壤基本理化性质

    Table  1.   Basic physical and chemical properties of the tested soil

    土地利用方式 Land use pH 有机质 Organic matter (g·kg-1) 全氮 Total N (g·kg-1) 全磷 Total P (g·kg-1) 全钾 Total K (g·kg-1) 碱解氮 Available N (mg·kg-1) 有效磷 Available P (mg·kg-1) 速效钾 Available K (mg·kg-1)
    旱地Dryland 6.3 14.8 1.40 0.729 14.9 60.3 41.2 217
    水田 Paddy 7.1 20.4 1.08 0.432 19.2 86.2 6.21 57.2
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  供试秸秆基本性质

    Table  2.   Basic properties of the tested straw samples

    秸秆样品 Straw sample 碳Carbon (g·kg-1) 氮Nitrogen (g·kg-1) 磷Phosphorus (g·kg-1) 钾Potassium (g·kg-1) 碳氮比 C/N
    小麦秸秆 Wheat straw 452.8 3.77 2.36 2.07 120.11
    水稻秸秆 Rice straw 395.6 6.56 4.27 16.84 60.30
    玉米秸秆 Corn straw 418.9 6.14 6.02 18.48 68.22
    蚕豆青秆 Broad bean green stalk 392.8 7.38 4.56 7.95 53.22
    油菜青秆 Rapeseed green stalk 385.5 7.94 7.07 32.18 48.55
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  作物种植时间及施肥量

    Table  3.   Planting time and fertilization rates of crops

    作物 Crop 品种 Variety 种植时间(年-月-日) Planting time (year-month-day) 收获时间(年-月-日) Harvest time (year-month-day) 施肥量Fertilization rate (kg·hm-2)
    N P2O5 K2O
    玉米 Corn 正大999 ZD999 2015-03-29 2015-08-12 225 112.5 112.5
    油菜 Rapeseed 渝油28 YY 28 2014-11-17 2015-05-05 225 112.5 112.5
    水稻 Rice Y两优1号 YLY 1 2014-05-15 2014-08-25 150 60 60
    小麦 Wheat 川麦42 CM 42 2014-11-10 2015-05-02 135 60 60
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  不同秸秆在旱地和水田中不同时间的腐解率差异显著性分析

    Table  4.   Significance of difference in decomposition rates of different crops straws at different times in dryland and paddy field

    秸秆种类 Type of straws 旱地 Dryland 水田 Paddy field
    10 d 30 d 60 d 90 d 150 d 240 d 360 d 10 d 30 d 60 d 90 d 150 d 240 d 360 d
    小麦 Wheat Aa Ab Aa Bc Ad Aa Ab Aa Aa Ab Aa Ab Bc Bc
    水稻 Rice Aa Ac Aa Aa Aa Ab Aa Aab Ab Aa Bab Be Bd Ba
    玉米 Corn Aa Bd Bc Ab Ab Ab Ab Ab Aab Ac Aa Bc Ba Ab
    油菜 Rapeseed Aa Aa Bb Ac Ac Ac Aa Aab Bb Ab Ab Bd Be Bc
    蚕豆 Broad bean Aa Ab Ab Ac Be Bd Ac Aa Bc Ab Aab Aa Ab Bd
     同列不同小写字母表示不同秸秆腐解率在0.05水平上差异性显著。相同秸秆和腐解时间下,同行不同大写字母表示秸秆在旱地和水田中腐解率在0.05水平上差异性显著。Different lowercase letters in the same column indicate significant differences among different straws at 0.05 level. For the same straws and decomposition time,dDifferent capital letters in the same line indicate significant differences between dryland and paddy field for the same straws at the same decomposition time at 0.05 level.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  不同秸秆在旱地和水田中不同时间碳释放率显著性差异分析

    Table  5.   Significance of difference in carbon release rates of different crops straws at different times in dryland and paddy field

    秸秆种类 Type of straws 旱地 Dryland 水田 Paddy field
    10 d 30 d 60 d 90 d 150 d 240 d 360 d 10 d 30 d 60 d 90 d 150 d 240 d 360 d
    小麦 Wheat Aa Aa Aa Ac Ab Aa Ab Aab Aa Abc Aa Ba Bc Bc
    水稻 Rice Aa Bc Ab Aab Ad Ac Ac Ab Aa Aa Aa Bd Bb Aa
    玉米 Corn Ab Bc Ad Ab Ac Ab Abc Ac Ab Ad Aa Bc Ba Bb
    油菜 Rapeseed Aa Ab Ab Aa Aa Ad Aa Abc Bc Bc Bb Be Bd Bc
    蚕豆 Broad bean Aa Ad Ac Ac Be Be Ad Aa Bd Ab Aab Ab Ab Bd
     同列不同小写字母表示不同秸秆腐解率在0.05水平上差异性显著。相同秸秆和腐解时间下,同行不同大写字母表示秸秆在旱地和水田中腐解率在0.05水平上差异性显著。Different lowercase letters in the same column indicate significant differences among different straws at 0.05 level. D For the same straws and decomposition time,different capital letters in the same line indicate significant differences between dryland and paddy field for the same straws at the same decomposition time at 0.05 level.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  不同秸秆在旱地和水田中不同时间氮释放率显著性差异分析

    Table  6.   Analysis onSignificance of difference of in nitrogen release rates of different crops straws at different times in dryland and paddy field

    秸秆种类 Type of straws 旱地 Dryland 水田 Paddy field
    10 d 30 d 60 d 90 d 150 d 240 d 360 d 10 d 30 d 60 d 90 d 150 d 240 d 360 d
    小麦 Wheat Aa Aa Ab Ac Ab Ab Ad Aa Ab Ab Aab Ab Bc Bd
    水稻 Rice Aa Aa Aa Aa Aa Ab Aa Aa Aab Aab Aa Ab Ab Ab
    玉米 Corn Aa Aa Ac Ab Ab Bc Ac Aa Aab Ac Aa Ab Ab Ac
    油菜 Rapeseed Aa Ab Bc Ad Ac Ad Ab Aa Aa Abc Ab Ab Bd Be
    蚕豆 Broad bean Aa Ba Aab Abc Ab Ba Ba Aa Aab Aa Aa Aa Aa Aa
     同列不同小写字母表示不同秸秆腐解率在0.05水平上差异性显著。相同秸秆和腐解时间下,同行不同大写字母表示秸秆在旱地和水田中腐解率在0.05水平上差异性显著。Different lowercase letters in the same column indicate significant differences among different straws at 0.05 level. For the same straws and decomposition time,dDifferent capital letters in the same line indicate significant differences between dryland and paddy field for the same straws at the same decomposition time at 0.05 level.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  7  不同秸秆在旱地和水田中不同时间磷释放率显著性差异分析

    Table  7.   Analysis onSignificance of difference ofin phosphorus release rates of different crops straws at different times in dryland and paddy field

    秸秆种类 Type of straws 旱地 Dryland 水田 Paddy field
    10 d 30 d 60 d 90 d 150 d 240 d 360 d 10 d 30 d 60 d 90 d 150 d 240 d 360 d
    小麦 Wheat Aa Ab Ab Bc Bc Be Ad Aab Aa Ab Ab Ab Ae Ae
    水稻 Rice Aa Ab Aa Aab Aab Ac Ab Ab Aa Aab Ab Bb Bd Bd
    玉米 Corn Aa Aab Aa Aab Aa Ab Ab Aab Aa Aab Aab Aab Aa Aa
    油菜 Rapeseed Aa Aa Aa Aa Aa Aa Aa Aa Aa Aa Aa Aa Bb Bb
    蚕豆 Broad bean Aa Aa Aa Ab Ab Bd Ac Aa Aa Aab Aa Aa Ac Bc
     同列不同小写字母表示不同秸秆腐解率在0.05水平上差异性显著。相同秸秆和腐解时间下,同行不同大写字母表示秸秆在旱地和水田中腐解率在0.05水平上差异性显著。Different lowercase letters in the same column indicate significant differences among different straws at 0.05 level. For the same straws and decomposition time,dDifferent capital letters in the same line indicate significant differences between dryland and paddy field for the same straws at the same decomposition time at 0.05 level.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  8  不同秸秆在旱地和水田中不同时间钾释放率显著性差异分析

    Table  8.   Analysis on difference of potassium release rates of different crop straws at different times in dryland and paddy field

    秸秆种类 Type of straws 旱地 Dryland 水田 Paddy field
    10 d 30 d 60 d 90 d 150 d 240 d 360 d 10 d 30 d 60 d 90 d 150 d 240 d 360 d
    小麦 Wheat Ab Ab Aa Ab Ab Ae Ad Ab Bb Bc Ab Ac Be Ad
    水稻 Rice Ab Bb Aa Aa Aa Ad Ab Aab Ac Bb Aa Ab Bd Bb
    玉米 Corn Ab Aab Aa Aa Aa Ac Ac Ab Abc Bd Aab Ac Bc Bc
    油菜 Rapeseed Aa Ac Aa Ba Aa Aa Aa Aa Aa Aa Ac Ad Bb Ba
    蚕豆 Broad bean Aab Ba Aa Aa Aa Bb Ab Aab Aa Bb Aa Aa Aa Ba
     同列不同小写字母表示不同秸秆腐解率在0.05水平上差异性显著。相同秸秆和腐解时间下,同行不同大写字母表示秸秆在旱地和水田中腐解率在0.05水平上差异性显著。Different lowercase letters in the same column indicate significant differences among different straws at 0.05 level. For the same straws and decomposition time,dDifferent capital letters in the same line indicate significant differences between dryland and paddy field for the same straws at the same decomposition time at 0.05 level.
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2016-08-23
  • 录用日期:  2016-11-07
  • 刊出日期:  2017-02-01

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