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花生与玉米和芝麻间作的产量及经济效益分析

武岩岩 汪江涛 李雪 孙增光 郭彬彬 尹飞 焦念元

武岩岩, 汪江涛, 李雪, 孙增光, 郭彬彬, 尹飞, 焦念元. 花生与玉米和芝麻间作的产量及经济效益分析[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2021, 29(8): 1285-1295. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.210056
引用本文: 武岩岩, 汪江涛, 李雪, 孙增光, 郭彬彬, 尹飞, 焦念元. 花生与玉米和芝麻间作的产量及经济效益分析[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2021, 29(8): 1285-1295. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.210056
WU Yanyan, WANG Jiangtao, LI Xue, SUN Zengguang, GUO Binbin, YIN Fei, JIAO Nianyuan. Yield and economic benefits of peanut intercropping with maize and sesame[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2021, 29(8): 1285-1295. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.210056
Citation: WU Yanyan, WANG Jiangtao, LI Xue, SUN Zengguang, GUO Binbin, YIN Fei, JIAO Nianyuan. Yield and economic benefits of peanut intercropping with maize and sesame[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2021, 29(8): 1285-1295. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.210056

花生与玉米和芝麻间作的产量及经济效益分析

doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.210056
基金项目: 

国家自然科学基金项目 U1404315

河南省自然科学基金项目 182300410014

河南省科技攻关项目 182102110180

详细信息
    作者简介:

    武岩岩, 主要从事花生与玉米、芝麻间作生理生态研究。E-mail: 18437957962@163.com

    通讯作者:

    焦念元, 主要从事间套作资源高效利用及生理生态机理研究。E-mail: jiaony1@163.com

  • 中图分类号: S344.2

Yield and economic benefits of peanut intercropping with maize and sesame

Funds: 

the National Natural Science Foundation of China U1404315

the Natural Science Foundation of Henan Province 182300410014

the Key Technology Projects of Henan Province 182102110180

More Information
  • 摘要: 为明确不同间作体系对花生产量形成和经济效益的影响,本试验于2018—2019年,设置玉米‖花生(M‖P)、芝麻‖花生(S‖P)、单作花生(SP)、单作玉米(SM)和单作芝麻(SS)5个种植模式,研究了不同种植模式对花生功能叶光合-光强响应曲线、干物质积累、种间竞争力指数、产量及经济效益的影响。结果表明:1)与玉米‖花生体系中的间作花生相比,芝麻‖花生体系中间作花生的最大净光合速率(Pnmax)、产量和最大干物质积累量分别显著提升了18.0%~20.7%、64.2%~70.0%、26.5%~31.8%(P < 0.05)。2)间作芝麻干物质积累进入缓增期后16~19 d,芝麻‖花生中间作花生仍处于干物质积累快增期,芝麻和花生干物质积累快增期互相错开,而玉米‖花生体系中玉米和花生的干物质积累快增期重叠;成熟期,间作花生相对于芝麻、玉米的竞争力指数分别为-2.31~-2.06和-4.68~-4.34。说明间作花生相对于芝麻的竞争力比相对于玉米的竞争力强。3)芝麻‖花生较玉米‖花生的土地当量比提高3.0%~4.0%,且大于1;经济效益显著提高16.7%~50.8%(P < 0.05),达2.3万~2.4万元·hm-2。研究结果表明芝麻‖花生较玉米‖花生,提高了土地利用率、产量和收益,其机理在于芝麻‖花生较玉米‖花生能错开作物间干物质积累的快增期,降低高、矮两种作物的种间竞争强度,提高间作花生冠层光强和净光合速率。
  • 图  1  不同间作体系中花生荚果膨大期冠层光强日变化曲线(2019)

    IP(S‖P): 芝麻‖花生体系的间作花生; IP(M‖P): 玉米‖花生体系的间作花生; SP: 单作花生; PPFD: 光量子通量密度。不同小写字母表示差异在P < 0.05水平差异显著。

    Figure  1.  Diurnal variation curves of light intensity of peanut canopy in different intercropping systems at pod enlargement stage of peanut in 2019

    IP(S‖P): peanut in sesame‖peanut intercropping system; IP(M‖P): peanut in maize‖peanut intercropping system; SP: monocultured peanut; PPFD: light quantum flux density. Different lowercase letters mean significant differences at P < 0.05 level.

    图  2  玉米‖花生、芝麻‖花生对花生、芝麻、玉米功能叶光合-光强响应曲线的影响

    IP(S‖P): 芝麻‖花生体系的间作花生; IP(M‖P): 玉米‖花生间作体系内间作花生; SP: 单作花生; SM: 单作玉米; IM: 间作玉米; SS: 单作芝麻; IS: 间作芝麻; Pn: 净光合速率。

    Figure  2.  Effects of maize‖peanut and sesame‖peanut intercropping on the photosynthetic rate response curves to light in the functional leaves of peanut, sesame and maize

    IP(S‖P): peanut in sesame‖peanut intercropping system; IP(M‖P): peanut in maize‖peanut intercropping system; SP: monocultured peanut; SM: monocultured maize; IM: intercropped maize; SS: monocultured sesame; IS: intercropped sesame; Pn: net photosynthetic rate.

    图  3  玉米‖花生、芝麻‖花生体系中花生干物质量积累曲线

    IP(S‖P): 芝麻‖花生体系的间作花生; IP(M‖P): 玉米‖花生体系的间作花生; SP: 单作花生。

    Figure  3.  Logistic curves of dry matter accumulation of peanuts in maize‖peanut and sesame‖peanut intercropping systems

    IP(S‖P): peanut in sesame‖peanut intercropping system; IP(M‖P): peanut in maize‖peanut intercropping system; SP: monocultured peanut.

    图  4  玉米‖花生、芝麻‖花生体系中芝麻和玉米干物质量积累曲线

    SM: 单作玉米; IM: 间作玉米; SS: 单作芝麻; IS: 间作芝麻。

    Figure  4.  Logistic curves of dry matter accumulation of sesame and maize in sesame‖peanut and maize‖peanut intercropping systems

    SM: monocultured maize; IM: intercropped maize; SS: monocultured sesame; IS: intercropped sesame.

    表  1  玉米‖花生、芝麻‖花生对花生功能叶光合-光强响应曲线参数的影响

    Table  1.   Effects of maize‖peanut and sesame‖peanut intercropping on relevant parameters of the photosynthetic rate response curves to light in the functional leaves of peanuts

    年份
    Year
    种植方式
    Planting pattern
    Pnmax Isat Ic Rd 决定系数
    Determination coefficient
    2018 IP(S‖P) 21.57 1720 84 3.11 0.9965
    IP(M‖P) 18.28 1104 64 3.38 0.9982
    SP 25.65 1544 60 2.64 0.9957
    2019 IP(S‖P) 22.94 1488 60 2.67 0.9993
    IP(M‖P) 19.01 1164 56 2.63 0.9986
    SP 27.23 1540 56 3.12 0.9987
    IP(S‖P): 芝麻‖花生体系的间作花生; IP(M‖P): 玉米‖花生间作体系内间作花生; SP: 单作花生。Pnmax: 光饱和时净光合速率; Isat: 光饱和点; Ic: 光补偿点; Rd: 暗呼吸速率。IP(S‖P): peanut in sesame‖peanut intercropping system; IP(M‖P): peanut in maize‖peanut intercropping system; SP: monocultured peanut; Pnmax: net photosynthetic rate at light saturation; Isat: light saturation point; Ic: light compensation point; Rd: dark respiration rate.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  玉米‖花生、芝麻‖花生体系中花生干物质积累量Logistic模型参数

    Table  2.   Parameters in Logistic models of dry matter accumulation of peanuts in maize‖peanut and sesame‖peanut intercropping systems

    年份
    Year
    种植方式
    Planting pattern
    K
    (g·plant–1)
    a b R2 vmax (g·d–1) tmax (d) t1 (d) t2 (d) Δt (d)
    2018 IP(S‖P) 75.33 77.32 0.062 0.990 1.17 70 49 91 42
    IP(M‖P) 57.16 37.04 0.049 0.971 0.70 74 47 101 54
    SP 86.27 155.78 0.076 0.990 1.64 66 49 84 35
    2019 IP(S‖P) 77.61 156.24 0.072 0.959 1.40 70 52 88 37
    IP(M‖P) 61.37 53.14 0.054 0.954 0.83 74 49 98 49
    SP 83.90 420.72 0.093 0.959 1.95 65 51 79 28
    IP(S‖P): 芝麻‖花生体系的间作花生; IP(M‖P): 玉米‖花生间作体系内间作花生; SP: 单作花生。K: 最大干物质量; vmax: 干物质量最大积累速率; tmax: 干物质量最大积累速率出现时间; t1: 快增期开始时间; t2: 快增期结束时间; Δt: 快增期持续时间。IP(S‖P): peanut in sesame‖peanut intercropping system; IP(M‖P): peanut in maize‖peanut intercropping system; SP: monocultured peanut; K: maximum dry matter mass; vmax: maximum dry matter accumulation rate; tmax: time to maximum accumulation rate of dry matter mass; t1: start time of the rapid growth period; t2: end time of the rapid growth period; Δt: duration of rapid growth period.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  玉米‖花生、芝麻‖花生体系中芝麻和玉米干物质积累量Logistic模型参数

    Table  3.   Parameters of Logistic models of dry matter accumulation of sesame and maize in maize‖peanut and sesame‖peanut intercropping systems

    年份
    Year
    种植方式
    Planting pattern
    K
    (g∙plant–1)
    a b R2 vmax (g∙d–1) tmax (d) t1 (d) t2 (d) Δt (d)
    2018 IS 95.46 837.17 0.117 0.996 2.79 58 46 69 23
    SS 67.16 230.30 0.091 0.993 1.53 60 45 74 29
    IM 327.44 52.40 0.057 0.995 4.67 69 46 93 46
    SM 298.64 58.29 0.056 0.992 4.18 73 49 96 47
    2019 IS 95.21 1277.35 0.125 0.997 2.98 57 47 68 21
    SS 69.35 539.57 0.105 0.993 1.82 60 47 72 25
    IM 378.11 38.05 0.049 0.995 4.63 74 47 101 54
    SM 308.45 36.43 0.049 0.976 3.78 73 46 100 54
    IS: 间作芝麻; SS: 单作芝麻; IM: 间作玉米; SM: 单作玉米; K: 最大干物质量; vmax: 干物质量最大积累速率; tmax: 干物质量最大积累速率出现时间; t1: 快增期开始时间; t2: 快增期结束时间; Δt: 快增期持续时间。IS: intercropped sesame; SS: monocultured sesame; IM: intercropped maize; SM: monocultured maize; K: maximum dry matter mass; vmax: maximum dry matter accumulation rate; tmax: time to maximum accumulation rate of dry matter mass; t1: start time of the rapid growth period; t2: end time of rapid growth period; Δt: duration of rapid growth period.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  芝麻‖花生、玉米‖花生体系中花生的种间竞争力

    Table  4.   Interspecific competitiveness of peanut to maize and sesame in maize‖peanut and sesame‖peanut intercropping systems

    年份
    Year
    种植方式
    Planting pattern
    生物产量Biological yield (kg∙hm–2) 花生竞争力指数
    Competitiveness index of peanut
    花生Peanut 芝麻Sesame 玉米Maize
    2018 芝麻‖花生体系Sesame‖peanut intercropping 5382±15b 11 837±169a –2.31
    玉米‖花生体系Maize‖peanut intercropping 3714±32c 37 134±524a –4.34
    单作Monoculture 6598±28ab 8067±46b 17 590±316b
    2019 芝麻‖花生体系Sesame‖peanut intercropping 5776±221b 12 059±49a –2.06
    玉米‖花生体系Maize‖peanut intercropping 4085±26c 39 493±585a –4.68
    单作Monoculture 6540±90b 8531±142b 17 252±124b
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  玉米‖花生、芝麻‖花生体系的产量、土地当量比和经济效益

    Table  5.   Yield, land equivalent ratio, and economic benefits of maize‖peanut and sesame‖peanut intercropping systems

    年份
    Year
    种植方式
    Planting pattern
    产量
    Yield (kg·hm-2)
    偏土地当量比
    Partial land equivalent ratio
    土地当量比
    Land equivalent ratio
    收益
    Revenue (×104 ¥·hm-2)
    花生
    Peanut
    芝麻
    Sesame
    玉米
    Maize
    花生
    Peanut
    芝麻
    Sesame
    玉米
    Maize
    2018 S‖P 1917±110b 1175±40b 0.49 0.60 1.09 2.87
    M‖P 1125±13c 5867±17b 0.29 0.74 1.03 1.90
    SP 3917±83a 2.74
    SS 1969±78a 2.56
    SM 7896±177a 1.50
    2019 S‖P 1683±28b 1038±31b 0.45 0.61 1.06 2.32
    M‖P 1025±34c 7067±54b 0.27 0.77 1.04 1.99
    SP 3764±159a 2.26
    SS 1688±39a 2.13
    SM 9206±4a 1.79
    S‖P: 芝麻‖花生; M‖P: 玉米‖花生; 2018年和2019年花生价格分别为7.00元∙kg–1和6.00元∙kg–1, 芝麻价格分别为13.00元∙kg–1和2.60元∙kg–1, 玉米价格分别为1.90元∙kg–1和1.94元∙kg–1 (数据来源惠农网)。S‖P: sesame‖peanut intercropping system; M‖P: maize‖peanut intercropping system. In 2018 and 2019, the prices of peanut were 7.00 and 6.00 ¥∙kg–1, the prices of sesame were 13.00 and 12.60 ¥∙kg–1, and the prices of maize were 1.90 and 1.94 ¥∙kg–1, respectively (data from https://www.cnhnb.com/).
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-01-28
  • 录用日期:  2021-03-26
  • 刊出日期:  2021-08-01

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