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遁耕分层施肥对夏玉米产量形成的调控效应

徐萍 杨宪杰 邓学斌 杨震 孙彦玲 张正斌

徐萍, 杨宪杰, 邓学斌, 杨震, 孙彦玲, 张正斌. 遁耕分层施肥对夏玉米产量形成的调控效应[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2022, 30(3): 389−398 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210128
引用本文: 徐萍, 杨宪杰, 邓学斌, 杨震, 孙彦玲, 张正斌. 遁耕分层施肥对夏玉米产量形成的调控效应[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2022, 30(3): 389−398 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210128
XU P, YANG X J, DENG X B, YANG Z, SUN Y L, ZHANG Z B. Regulating effect of deep tillage and delamination fertilization on the yield formation of summer maize[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2022, 30(3): 389−398 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210128
Citation: XU P, YANG X J, DENG X B, YANG Z, SUN Y L, ZHANG Z B. Regulating effect of deep tillage and delamination fertilization on the yield formation of summer maize[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2022, 30(3): 389−398 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210128

遁耕分层施肥对夏玉米产量形成的调控效应

doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210128
基金项目: 河北省重点研发计划项目(20326403D)资助
详细信息
    作者简介:

    徐萍, 主要从事小麦栽培研究。E-mail: xuping@sjziam.ac.cn

    通讯作者:

    张正斌, 主要研究方向为小麦育种与栽培。E-mail: zzb@sjziam.ac.cn

  • 中图分类号: S513

Regulating effect of deep tillage and delamination fertilization on the yield formation of summer maize

Funds: The study was supported by the Key Research and Development Project of Hebei Province (20326403D).
More Information
  • 摘要: 针对黄淮海平原夏玉米硬茬播种导致耕层变浅和光温水肥资源利用效率下降的问题, 本试验设置遁耕分层施肥后播种(简称“遁耕”)和硬茬种肥同播(简称“硬茬”)两个处理, 测定比较了土壤容重、含水率和养分含量, 并在玉米大喇叭口期、抽雄期、吐丝期、灌浆后期和成熟期对玉米生长发育性状、干物质积累性状、产量构成性状进行了调查和差异比较; 最后比较分析了玉米水分利用效率和偏氮肥生产力。结果表明, 遁耕处理与硬茬处理相比, 可明显地降低土壤容重, 增加土壤含水率和20~40 cm土层氮磷钾养分含量。遁耕处理的玉米株高和单株叶面积在大喇叭口期到吐丝期明显高于硬茬处理, 叶干重从大喇叭口期到抽雄期、穗干重从吐丝期到灌浆后期都显著高于硬茬处理; 穗粗、行粒数、百粒重、穗轴重、单株粒重、单株秸秆重和产量也显著高于硬茬播种。与硬茬处理相比, 遁耕处理显著提高了水分利用效率和偏氮肥生产力, 并增产19.53%。因此, 遁耕分层施肥一体化技术明显优化了土壤容重和水分及养分分布, 调控了玉米生长发育节奏和产量构成要素, 增加了玉米干物质积累, 提高穗粒数和粒重, 从而实现增产。
  • 图  1  2020年试验区玉米生育期降雨量

    Figure  1.  Precipitation during maize growth period in the study area in 2020

    图  2  玉米成熟期不同耕作处理下不同土层土壤含水率和土壤容重

    DTDF: 遁耕分层施肥后播种; HSSF: 硬茬种肥同播。不同小写字母表示同一土层两处理间差异显著(P<0.05)。DTDF: deep tillage and delamination fertilization; HSSF: hard stubble seeding and fertilization. Different lowercase letters mean significant differences between two treatments in the same soil layer at P<0.05 level.

    Figure  2.  Soil water contents and soil bulk densities of different soil layers under two tillage treatments at maize maturity stage

    图  3  不同耕作处理下玉米成熟期不同土层土壤养分含量的差异

    DTDF: 遁耕分层施肥后播种; HSSF: 硬茬种肥同播。不同小写字母表示同一处理两土层间差异显著(P<0.05)。DTDF: deep tillage and delamination fertilization; HSSF: hard stubble seeding and fertilization. Different lowercase letters mean significant differences between 0−20 cm and 20−40 cm soil layers under the same treatment at P<0.05 level.

    Figure  3.  Nutrients contents of different soil layers under two tillage treatments at maize maturity stage

    图  4  不同生育期不同耕作处理下玉米植株状态

    每个图的左侧为遁耕分层施肥后播种, 右侧为硬茬种肥同播处理。In each figure, the left side is the treatment of deep tillage and delamination fertilization, and the right side is the treatment of hard stubble seeding and fertilization.

    Figure  4.  Maize plants at different growth stages under two tillage treatments

    图  5  不同耕作处理下玉米生长发育性状

    DTDF: 遁耕分层施肥后播种; HSSF: 硬茬种肥同播。BHS: 大喇叭口期; TS: 抽雄期; SS: 吐丝期; LFS: 灌浆后期。DTDF: deep tillage and delamination fertilization; HSSF: hard stubble seeding and fertilization. BHS: big horn stage; TS: tasseling stage; SS: silking stage; LFS: later filling stage.

    Figure  5.  Comparison of growth and development characters of maize under two tillage treatments

    图  6  不同耕作处理玉米干物质积累性状差异比较

    DTDF: 遁耕分层施肥后播种; HSSF: 硬茬种肥同播。BHS: 大喇叭口期; TS: 抽雄期; SS: 吐丝期; LFS: 灌浆后期。DTDF: deep tillage and delamination fertilization; HSSF: hard stubble seeding and fertilization. BHS: big horn stage; TS: tasseling stage; SS: silking stage; LFS: later filling stage.

    Figure  6.  Comparison of dry matter accumulation characters of maize under two tillage treatments

    图  7  不同耕作处理下玉米水分利用效率(WUE)和偏氮肥生产力(PFPN)

    DTDF: 遁耕分层施肥后播种; HSSF: 硬茬种肥同播。不同小写字母表示两处理间差异显著(P<0.05)。DTDF: deep tillage and delamination fertilization; HSSF: hard stubble seeding and fertilization. Different lowercase letters mean significant differences between two treatments at P<0.05 level.

    Figure  7.  Comparison of water use efficiency (WUE) and partial factor productivity of nitrogen (PFPN) of maize under two tillage treatments

    表  1  不同耕作处理玉米产量构成性状的差异

    Table  1.   Comparison of yield components characters of maize under two tillage treatments

    处理
    Treatment
    穗粗
    Ear diameter
    (cm)
    穗长
    Ear length
    (cm)
    穗轴重
    Cob weight
    (g)
    行数
    Kernel lines number
    per ear
    行粒数
    Kernels number
    per line
    单株粒重
    Kernel weigh per
    plant (g)
    百粒重
    100-kernal
    weight (g)
    产量
    Yield
    (kg∙hm−2)
    经济系数
    Economic
    coefficient
    DTDF4.76a18.83a42.94a16.00a42.33a197.01a32.88a10 835.91a0.46a
    HSSH4.33a18.50a35.73b15.33a41.33a164.81b28.09b9065.20b0.45a
      DTDF: 遁耕分层施肥后播种; HSSF: 硬茬种肥同播。同列不同小写字母表示两处理间差异显著(P<0.05)。DTDF: deep tillage and delamination fertilization; HSSF: hard stubble seeding and fertilization. Different lowercase letters in the same column mean significant differences between two treatments at P<0.05 level.
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-03-28
  • 录用日期:  2021-09-08
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-11-30
  • 刊出日期:  2022-03-07

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