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黄土高原干旱区长期种植紫花苜蓿和一年生作物轮作对土壤真菌群落的影响

孙鹏洲 罗珠珠 李玲玲 牛伊宁 蔡立群 刘家鹤 王晓菲

孙鹏洲, 罗珠珠, 李玲玲, 牛伊宁, 蔡立群, 刘家鹤, 王晓菲. 黄土高原干旱区长期种植紫花苜蓿和一年生作物轮作对土壤真菌群落的影响[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2022, 30(6): 965−975 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210348
引用本文: 孙鹏洲, 罗珠珠, 李玲玲, 牛伊宁, 蔡立群, 刘家鹤, 王晓菲. 黄土高原干旱区长期种植紫花苜蓿和一年生作物轮作对土壤真菌群落的影响[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2022, 30(6): 965−975 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210348
SUN P Z, LUO Z Z, LI L L, NIU Y N, CAI L Q, LIU J H, WANG X F. Influences of continuous monoculture of alfalfa and rotation of annual crops on soil fungal communities in the semi-arid Loess Plateau[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2022, 30(6): 965−975 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210348
Citation: SUN P Z, LUO Z Z, LI L L, NIU Y N, CAI L Q, LIU J H, WANG X F. Influences of continuous monoculture of alfalfa and rotation of annual crops on soil fungal communities in the semi-arid Loess Plateau[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2022, 30(6): 965−975 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210348

黄土高原干旱区长期种植紫花苜蓿和一年生作物轮作对土壤真菌群落的影响

doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210348
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金项目(31860364, 32160526)、甘肃省科技计划项目(20JR5RA019)、甘肃省国际科技合作基地(GSPT-2018-56)和甘肃省优秀研究生“创新之星”项目(2021CXZX-412)资助
详细信息
    作者简介:

    孙鹏洲, 主要研究方向为土壤生态。E-mail: 1002994273@qq.com

    通讯作者:

    罗珠珠, 主要研究方向为土壤生态。E-mail: luozz@gsau.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: S154.3

Influences of continuous monoculture of alfalfa and rotation of annual crops on soil fungal communities in the semi-arid Loess Plateau

Funds: This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31860364, 32160526), the Science and Technology Plan Program of Gansu Province (20JR5RA019), the International Science and Technology Cooperation Base of Gansu Province (GSPT-2018-56) and Gansu Province Excellent Graduate Innovation Star Project (2021CXZX-412).
More Information
  • 摘要: 为研究半干旱区种植制度对土壤真菌群落和功能的影响, 本研究依托布设于黄土高原雨养农业区的长期定位试验, 采集长期种植苜蓿(LC)、苜蓿-休耕(LF)、苜蓿-休耕-玉米(LFC)、苜蓿-马铃薯(LP)、苜蓿-谷子(LMi)5个处理的耕层(0~30 cm)土壤样品, 基于真菌ITS区高通量测序技术, 分析比较长期种植苜蓿和一年生作物对土壤真菌多样性和群落特征的影响, 并采用FUNGuild平台分析预测不同处理土壤真菌的生态功能。结果表明, 本研究共检测到真菌7门25纲77目169科347属, 其中以子囊菌门(Ascomycota, 69.17%~88.22%)为最优势菌门, 且远远大于次优势菌门——接合菌门(Zygomycota, 6.72%~19.88%)和担子菌门(Basidiomycota, 1.64%~9.01%); 属水平下各处理优势菌群存在差异, 其中LC处理优势属为Phaeomycocentrospora, LF、LP和LMi的优势属均为赤霉菌属(Gibberella), LFC处理优势属为被孢霉属(Mortierella)。冗余分析(RDA)发现, 土壤有效磷(P=0.002)是影响土壤真菌群落结构的主要环境因子。真菌FUNGuild功能预测结果表明, 本试验黄绵土主要以病理营养型真菌(pathotroph)为主(25.44%~39.27%), 速效磷和硝态氮是影响土壤真菌营养类型变化的主要环境因子, 与长期种植苜蓿相比种植一年生大田作物显著增加了土壤腐生-共生营养型、病原体-腐生-共生营养型和病理-腐生-共生营养型等过渡型真菌类群相对丰度, 说明合理的种植制度有利于改善农田土壤真菌群落结构, 促进区域土壤生态系统的稳定。
  • 图  1  不同种植制度土壤真菌群落Alpha多样性

    LC、LF、LFC、LP和LMi分别表示紫花苜蓿连作、紫花苜蓿-休耕、紫花苜蓿-休耕-玉米、紫花苜蓿-马铃薯、紫花苜蓿-谷子。

    Figure  1.  Alpha diversity of soil fungal communities in different cropping systems

    LC, LF, LFC, LP and LMi indicate the treatments of lucerne continuous cropping, rotation of lucerne-fallow, rotation of lucerne-fallow-corn, rotation of lucerne-potato, and rotation of lucerne-millet, respectively.

    图  2  不同种植制度土壤真菌群落PCoA分析

    LC、LF、LFC、LP和LMi分别表示紫花苜蓿连作、紫花苜蓿-休耕、紫花苜蓿-休耕-玉米、紫花苜蓿-马铃薯、紫花苜蓿-谷子。

    Figure  2.  PCoA analysis of soil fungal communities in different cropping systems

    LC, LF, LFC, LP and LMi indicate the treatments of lucerne continuous cropping, rotation of lucerne-fallow, rotation of lucerne-fallow-corn, rotation of lucerne-potato, and rotation of lucerne-millet, respectively.

    图  3  不同种植制度土壤真菌门水平相对丰度

    LC、LF、LFC、LP和LMi分别表示紫花苜蓿连作、紫花苜蓿-休耕、紫花苜蓿-休耕-玉米、紫花苜蓿-马铃薯、紫花苜蓿-谷子。*表示不同处理间差异显著(P<0.05)。

    Figure  3.  Relative abundances of soil fungal communities at phylum levels in different cropping systems

    LC, LF, LFC, LP and LMi indicate the treatments of lucerne continuous cropping, rotation of lucerne-fallow, rotation of lucerne-fallow-corn, rotation of lucerne-potato, and rotation of lucerne-millet, respectively. * means significant differences among treatments (P<0.05).

    图  4  不同种植制度土壤真菌属水平相对丰度

    LC、LF、LFC、LP和LMi分别表示紫花苜蓿连作、紫花苜蓿-休耕、紫花苜蓿-休耕-玉米、紫花苜蓿-马铃薯、紫花苜蓿-谷子。

    Figure  4.  Relative abundance of soil fungal communities at the level of genus in different cropping systems

    LC, LF, LFC, LP and LMi indicate the treatments of lucerne continuous cropping, rotation of lucerne-fallow, rotation of lucerne-fallow-corn, rotation of lucerne-potato, and rotation of lucerne-millet, respectively.

    图  5  土壤真菌属与理化因子RDA分析

    LC、LF、LFC、LP和LMi分别表示紫花苜蓿连作、紫花苜蓿-休耕、紫花苜蓿-休耕-玉米、紫花苜蓿-马铃薯、紫花苜蓿-谷子。Gibberella: 赤霉菌属; Mortierella: 被孢霉属; Metarhizium: 绿僵菌属; Fusarium: 镰刀菌属; Humicola: 腐质霉属; Cryptococcus: 隐球菌属; Mycosphaerella: 球腔菌属; Beauveria: 白僵菌属; BD: 容重; SOC: 有机碳: TN: 全氮; NO3-N: 硝态氮; AP: 有效磷; AK: 速效钾。

    Figure  5.  RDA analysis of soil fungi genus and physicochemical factors

    LC, LF, LFC, LP and LMi indicate the treatments of lucerne continuous cropping, rotation of lucerne-fallow, rotation of lucerne-fallow-corn, rotation of lucerne-potato, and rotation of lucerne-millet, respectively. BD, SOC, TN, NO3-N, AP and AK represent soil bulk density, organic carbon, total nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium, respectively.

    图  6  不同种植制度土壤真菌营养型及相对丰度

    LC、LF、LFC、LP和LMi分别表示紫花苜蓿连作、紫花苜蓿-休耕、紫花苜蓿-休耕-玉米、紫花苜蓿-马铃薯、紫花苜蓿-谷子。*表示不同处理间差异显著(P<0.05)。

    Figure  6.  Relative abundance of soil fungal nutrient types in different cropping systems

    LC, LF, LFC, LP and LMi indicate the treatments of lucerne continuous cropping, rotation of lucerne-fallow, rotation of lucerne-fallow-corn, rotation of lucerne-potato, and rotation of lucerne-millet, respetively. * means significant differences among treatments (P<0.05).

    图  7  土壤真菌功能类群与理化因子RDA分析

    LC、LF、LFC、LP和LMi分别表示紫花苜蓿连作、紫花苜蓿-休耕、紫花苜蓿-休耕-玉米、紫花苜蓿-马铃薯、紫花苜蓿-谷子。图中红色箭头代表土壤环境因子, 蓝色箭头代表土壤真菌营养类型; BD、SOC、TN、NO3-N、AP和AK分别代表土壤容重、有机碳、全氮、硝态氮、有效磷和速效钾; Saprotroph: 腐生营养型; Symbiotroph: 共生营养型; Pathotroph: 病理营养型; Pathotroph-Saprotroph: 病理-腐生营养型; Pathotroph-Symbiotroph: 病理-共生营养型; Saprotroph-Symbiotroph: 腐生-共生营养型; Pathogen-Saprotroph-Symbiotroph: 病原体-腐生-共生营养型; Pathotroph-Saprotroph-Symbiotroph: 病理-腐生-共生营养型。

    Figure  7.  RDA analysis of soil fungal functional groups and physicochemical factors

    LC, LF, LFC, LP and LMi indicate the treatments of lucerne continuous cropping, rotation of lucerne-fallow, rotation of lucerne-fallow-corn, rotation of lucerne-potato, and rotation of lucerne-millet, respectively. The red arrow in the figure represents soil physicochemical factors and the blue arrows represent soil fungal functional groups. BD, SOC, TN, NO3-N, AP and AK represent soil bulk density, organic carbon, total nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium.

    表  1  试验处理

    Table  1.   Experimental treatment

    处理
    Treatment
    代码
    Treatment code
    田间操作管理
    Field operation and management
    紫花苜蓿连作
    Lucerne continuous croping
    LC于2003年建植紫花苜蓿, 并连续种植至2018年Lucerne established in 2003 and continuously cropped to 2018
    紫花苜蓿-休耕
    Rotation of lucerne-fallow
    LF于2003年建植紫花苜蓿, 2012年3月挖除紫花苜蓿后一直保持休耕Lucerne established in 2003 and removed in March 2012, field fallowed until 2018
    紫花苜蓿-休耕-玉米
    Rotation of lucerne-fallow-corn
    LFC于2003年建植紫花苜蓿, 2012年3月挖除紫花苜蓿后保持休耕, 之后于次年春季种植玉米, 2014—2018年种植玉米Lucerne was established in 2003 and removed in March 2012, field fallowed until maize was sown in the spring of 2013, and maize was continuously cropped in 2014−2018
    紫花苜蓿-马铃薯
    Rotation of lucerne-potato
    LP于2003年建植紫花苜蓿, 2012年3月挖除紫花苜蓿, 并于当年5月种植马铃薯, 2013—2018年种植马铃薯Lucerne was established in 2003 and removed in March 2012, potato was sown in May 2012 and continuously cropped in 2013−2018
    紫花苜蓿-谷子
    Rotation of lucerne-millet
    LMi于2003年建植紫花苜蓿, 2012年3月挖除紫花苜蓿, 并于当年4月种植谷子, 2013−2018年种植谷子Lucerne was established in 2003 and removed in March 2012, millet was sown in April 2012 and continuously cropped in 2013−2018
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  不同种植制度的土壤理化性质

    Table  2.   Soil physicochemical properties of different cropping systems

    处理
    Treatment
    容重Bulk density
    (g·cm−3)
    有机碳Organic carbon
    (g·kg−1)
    全氮Total nitrogen
    (g·kg−1)
    硝态氮Nitrate nitrogen
    (mg·kg−1)
    有效磷Available phosphorus
    (mg·kg−1)
    速效钾Available potassium
    (mg·kg−1)
    pH
    LC1.31±0.01a9.40±0.14a1.04±0.07a12.97±0.72b0.98±0.16d200.77±20.01b8.45±0.05a
    LF1.27±0.02a8.34±0.17c0.91±0.01b20.72±0.75b5.54±0.01c241.91±11.93a8.32±0.08a
    LFC1.25±0.02a8.95±0.13b0.94±0.01ab39.17±4.16a9.50±0.82b223.67±0.53ab8.27±0.06a
    LP1.20±0.04a8.97±0.04b1.04±0.03a37.36±3.54a4.15±0.48c206.91±0.71ab8.28±0.07a
    LMi1.23±0.03a9.27±0.06ab1.01±0.01ab31.92±0.65a11.33±0.53a187.34±8.00b8.33±0.04a
      LC、LF、LFC、LP和LMi分别表示紫花苜蓿连作、紫花苜蓿-休耕、紫花苜蓿-休耕-玉米、紫花苜蓿-马铃薯、紫花苜蓿-谷子。表中数值表示均值±标准误(n=3), 同列不同小写字母表示处理间差异显著(P<0.05)。LC, LF, LFC, LP and LMi indicate lucerne continuous cropping, rotation of lucerne-fallow, rotation of lucerne-fallow-corn, rotation of lucerne-potato, and rotation of lucerne-millet, respectively. Values in the table are mean ± SD (n=3). Different lowercase letters represent significant differences among treatments (P<0.05).
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  不同种植制度土壤相对丰度前10的真菌属

    Table  3.   Top 10 genera of relative abundance of soil fungi in different cropping systems

    真菌属
    Fungal genus
    相对丰度 Relative abundance (%)
    LCLFLFCLPLMi
    赤霉菌属 Gibberella 7.23±2.47c 19.95±4.55ab 6.20±2.26c 14.18±0.80bc 27.80±4.17a
    被孢霉属 Mortierella 6.68±0.27b 13.17±1.25ab 19.73±4.27a 10.05±0.89b 7.83±1.68b
    绿僵菌属 Metarhizium 5.17±3.80a 4.66±1.88a 13.64±6.75a 4.15±0.26a 8.36±2.10a
    镰刀菌属 Fusarium 3.16±0.56a 2.41±0.31a 3.76±0.28a 2.13±0.16a 9.77±5.79a
    Phaeomycocentrospora 9.44±3.03a 2.97±2.41b 0.70±0.58b 2.10±1.75b 0.73±0.32b
    Lectera 4.01±1.38b 2.23±0.58ab 0.13±0.11c 7.66±1.43a 0.61±0.38c
    腐质霉属 Humicola 0.64±0.18a 0.83±0.21a 11.59±6.73a 0.72±0.05a 0.42±0.14a
    隐球菌属 Cryptococcus 1.84±0.38a 4.35±0.83a 3.86±1.17a 1.71±0.52a 1.85±0.34a
    球腔菌属 Mycosphaerella 1.31±0.45a 9.35±7.68a 0.06±0.02a 0.19±0.03a 0.23±0.05a
    白僵菌属 Beauveria 6.17±2.39a 0.12±0.03a 4.11±3.92a 0.18±0.06a 0.07±0.01a
      LC、LF、LFC、LP和LMi分别表示紫花苜蓿连作、紫花苜蓿-休耕、紫花苜蓿-休耕-玉米、紫花苜蓿-马铃薯、紫花苜蓿-谷子。表中数值表示均值±标准误(n=3), 同行不同小写字母代表处理间具有显著性差异(P<0.05)。LC, LF, LFC, LP and LMi indicate the treatments of lucerne continuous cropping, rotation of lucerne-fallow, rotation of lucerne-fallow-corn, rotation of lucerne-potato, and rotation of lucerne-millet, respectively. Values in the table are mean ± SD (n=3). Different lowercase letters in the same line represent significant differences among treatments (P<0.05).
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  土壤真菌Alpha多样性与理化因子Pearson相关分析

    Table  4.   Pearson correlation analysis between alpha diversity of soil fungi and physiochemical factors

    多样性指数
    Diversity index
    容重
    Bulk density
    有机碳
    Organic carbon
    全氮
    Total nitrogen
    硝态氮
    Nitrate nitrogen
    有效磷
    Available phosphorus
    速效钾
    Available potassium
    pH
    Sobs 指数 Sobs index−0.0480.143−0.097−0.134−0.188−0.0660.459
    Chao1 指数 Chao1 index−0.3600.1870.0540.0450.128−0.3140.276
    Shannon 指数 Shannon index0.2750.082−0.014−0.553*−0.434−0.0400.481
    Simpson 指数 Simpson index−0.220−0.103−0.1290.515*0.4660.148−0.393
      *和**分别表示相关性为显著(P<0.05)和极显著(P<0.01)。* and ** mean significant correlations at P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively.
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-06-07
  • 录用日期:  2021-12-30
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-01-06
  • 刊出日期:  2022-06-09

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