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乡村生态学: 乡村可持续发展的新学科

王松良 施生旭 吴仁烨 戴永务

王松良, 施生旭, 吴仁烨, 戴永务. 乡村生态学: 乡村可持续发展的新学科[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2021, 29(12): 2116−2125 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210438
引用本文: 王松良, 施生旭, 吴仁烨, 戴永务. 乡村生态学: 乡村可持续发展的新学科[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2021, 29(12): 2116−2125 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210438
WANG S L, SHI S X, WU R Y, DAI Y W. Rural Ecology: An emerging discipline for the rural sustainable development[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2021, 29(12): 2116−2125 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210438
Citation: WANG S L, SHI S X, WU R Y, DAI Y W. Rural Ecology: An emerging discipline for the rural sustainable development[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2021, 29(12): 2116−2125 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210438

乡村生态学: 乡村可持续发展的新学科

doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210438
基金项目: 福建省创新战略研究联合项目(2020R0138)资助
详细信息
    通讯作者:

    王松良, 主要从事农业生态学、生态农业、农业生态系统服务研究。E-mail: wsoloedu07@126.com

  • 中图分类号: Q948.11

Rural Ecology: An emerging discipline for the rural sustainable development

Funds: The study was supported by the Innovation Strategy Research Joint Project of Fujian Province (2020R0138)
More Information
  • 摘要: 乡村振兴的本质目标是推进乡村的可持续发展, 需要把生态学的等级和尺度理论融合其中。乡村生态学学科由此应运而生, 与城市生态学构成生态学空间互补、内容交叉的生态学图谱。乡村生态学的学科属性定位为一种跨学科模式下的交叉学科研究, 涉及农业生态学、政治生态学、社会生态学与景观生态学等学科的交叉与融合。其目标在于研究乡村生态系统的结构与功能, 探索农民、农村和农业相互融合、协调发展的生态关系。乡村生态学从时间和空间尺度研究乡村生态系统特别是城乡交界面景观的物质、能量、信息、价值和人力资源流, 揭示乡村生态系统结构和功能的关系, 为破解当前三农问题提供科学依据。基于上述理论探讨, 提出了针对我国乡村可持续发展的乡村生态学理论框架、热点问题及层次变革方向, 即依次从重新评估农业的多功能价值、变革农业的组织形式、革新农业资源的利用方式和回归农业的有机耕作方法等4个层级重构一个可持续的乡村生态系统。
  • 图  1  乡村生态学: 跨学科方式下的交叉学科研究方法

    Figure  1.  Rural Ecology: an interdisciplinary approach under transdisciplinary pattern

    图  2  乡村生态学与城市生态学相关联的研究尺度(在中国乃至发展中国家, 乡村总是比城市拥有更大的地域, 因此此图用于表示乡村生态系统的圆柱体比城市生态系统大)

    Figure  2.  Scales of Rural Ecology relating to Urban Ecology in the spectrum of general ecology geographically (the ‘rural’ cylinder is bigger than the ‘urban’ one in the diagram because the area and population is larger in rural than in urban area in most developing countries)

    表  1  中国乡村可持续性的乡村生态学分析框架

    Table  1.   Analytical frameworks of rural sustainability of rural China under the context of Rural Ecology

    乡村可持续性的构成
    Components of rural sustainability
    环境可持续性
    Environmental sustainability
    经济可持续性
    Economic sustainability
    社会可持续性
    Social sustainability
    结构特征
    Structural characteristics
    自然关系
    Natural relations
    人工自然关系
    Human nature relations
    人工社会关系
    Human social relations
    生态学过程
    Ecological process
    自然资本(物/能流)
    Natural capital (material and energy flow)
    人工经济资本流
    Human economic capital flow
    人工社会资本流
    Human social capital flow
    生态系统功能
    Ecosystem functions
    自然资本的维护
    Maintenance of natural capitals
    人工经济资本的维护
    Maintenance of human economic capitals
    人工社会资本的维护
    Maintenance of human social capitals
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-07-09
  • 录用日期:  2021-10-15
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-11-01
  • 刊出日期:  2021-12-07

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