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农业绿色发展视角下美国有机农业的成功经验与政策启示

马健 虞昊 罗小娟

马健, 虞昊, 罗小娟. 农业绿色发展视角下美国有机农业的成功经验与政策启示[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2022, 30(3): 470−483 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210509
引用本文: 马健, 虞昊, 罗小娟. 农业绿色发展视角下美国有机农业的成功经验与政策启示[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2022, 30(3): 470−483 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210509
MA J, YU H, LUO X J. Successful experience and policy inspirations of organic agriculture in the Unite States from the perspective of green development of agriculture[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2022, 30(3): 470−483 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210509
Citation: MA J, YU H, LUO X J. Successful experience and policy inspirations of organic agriculture in the Unite States from the perspective of green development of agriculture[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2022, 30(3): 470−483 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210509

农业绿色发展视角下美国有机农业的成功经验与政策启示

doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210509
基金项目: 2020年度国家自然科学基金地区科学基金项目(72063019)资助
详细信息
    作者简介:

    马健, 主要研究方向为农业经营理论与政策、产业经济与乡村振兴。E-mail: tottori2004@sina.com

    通讯作者:

    罗小娟, 主要研究方向为资源经济学。E-mail: lxj918@126.com

  • 中图分类号: F33/37

Successful experience and policy inspirations of organic agriculture in the Unite States from the perspective of green development of agriculture

Funds: This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (72063019).
More Information
  • 摘要: 发展有机农业有利于恢复生态平衡, 是提升农产品质量安全、实现我国农业绿色发展以及全面推进乡村振兴战略的重要方式之一。美国自20世纪40年代开始发展有机农业, 如今已在生产销售、贸易互动、认证管理、补贴与科研等各方面取得了一定的成效。其主要经验包括一方面坚持以农业法案的完善为核心, 构筑农业可持续发展的法理基础; 通过财政补贴的方式实施有机农业援助项目, 降低有机转换成本, 鼓励农户从事有机农业。另一方面, 不断创新有机技术理论, 提高有机科研水平; 积极推动有机标准国际认证认可, 打造全球第一的市场规模, 提升有机农业国际化水平。尽管如此, 美国有机农业在国家农业布局中仍属小众化产业, 有机农地面积和农场数量占全国的比例较低, 在各州的分布也不均衡, 西部、中西部和东北部有机农业发展明显优于南部。同时, 有机农产品进出口贸易结构也存在一定的失衡。本文认为出现以上问题的主要原因是美国有机农业经营成本较高、有机农产品竞争优势不强以及技术支持与财政投入力度有限等。基于此, 对我国有机农业的高质量发展提出以下建议: 培育新型有机农业经营主体, 拓宽有机产品营销渠道; 树立顶层设计理念, 构建精准的政策支持体系; 推进有机农业立法, 加强科研投入与技术创新; 健全有机认证制度, 积极推进国际认证认可。
  • 图  1  美国有机农地面积与有机农场数量变化(1992—2019年)

    1996年、1998年和1999年数据缺失。Data for 1996, 1998 and 1999 are missing. Source: USDA, https://www.nass.usda.gov/Surveys/Guide_to_NASS_Surveys/Organic_Production/index.php; FiBL, https://statistics.fibl.org/world.html.

    Figure  1.  Changes in the area of organic land and number of organic agricultural farms in the United States from 1992 to 2019

    图  2  美国有机市场规模与进出口总额变化(2000—2019年)

    Source: USDA, https://www.nass.usda.gov/Surveys/Guide_to_NASS_Surveys/Organic_Production/index.php; FiBL, https://statistics.fibl.org/world.html.

    Figure  2.  Changes in the size of organic market and total import and export amount in the United States from 2000 to 2019

    图  3  美国有机农地面积与农场数量比例变化(1992—2019年)

    1996、1998、1999年数据缺失。Data for 1996, 1998 and 1999 are missing. Source: 1) the same as Fig.1; and 2) Economics, Statistics and Market Information System https://usda.library.cornell.edu/concern/publications/5712m6524?locale=en&page=2#release-items.

    Figure  3.  Proportional change in the area of organic land and number of organic agricultural farms in the United States from 1992 to 2019

    表  1  2002—2018年美国《农业法案》对有机农业的预算支出

    Table  1.   Budget expenditure of organic agriculture in Agricultural Bills of United States of America from 2002 to 2018 ×104 $ 

    项目
    Program
    法案发布时间 Bill year
    2002200820142018
    有机农业研究和推广计划 Organic Agriculture Research and Extension Initiative 1500 7800 10 000 14 500
    有机认证成本分摊计划 Organic Certification Cost Share Program 500 2200 6500 3650
    有机生产和市场数据收集计划 Organic Production Market and Data Initiatives 500 1000 1000
    有机倡议 Organic Initiative 8 8 14
    有机转换计划 Organic Transitions Program 1600 3000
    合计 (不包括有机倡议) Total (Excluding Organic Initiative) 2000 10 500 19 100 22 150
      Source: National Sustainable Agriculture Coalition https://sustainableagriculture.net/publications/grassrootsguide/farm-bill-programs-and-grants/.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  2019年美国各州有机农业的分布与销售概况

    Table  2.   Distribution and sales of organic agriculture in states of the United States in 2019

    地区
    Region

    State
    有机农
    场数量
    Organic
    farms
    占农场总数
    比例
    Proportion in
    total local
    farms (%)
    有机农地
    面积
    Organic farmland
    area (hm2)
    占农地总
    面积比例
    Proportion in total
    agricultural land
    area (%)
    有机农场
    平均规模
    Average size of
    organic farms
    (hm2)
    ③=②/①
    有机商品
    销售额
    Sales of certified
    organically commodities
    (×104 $)
    人均有机商品
    消费额
    Per capita
    consumption of
    organic commodity ($)
    西部
    West
    (8/13)
    加利福尼亚 California30124.31390 6261.61130359 69291.03
    华盛顿 Washington7452.0945 2960.316188 597116.35
    俄勒冈 Oregon4561.2379 3370.5017445 441107.74
    爱达荷 Idaho2400.9873 1400.6430520 597115.25
    科罗拉多 Colorado2380.6167 7850.2128518 41231.97
    蒙大拿 Montana2080.78143 9560.25692654761.25
    夏威夷 Hawaii1291.771 1290.109172812.21
    新墨西哥 New Mexico1010.4115 8010.40156707733.75
    西部合计 Total53521.68958 3950.41179579 27673.94
    中西部
    Midwest
    (11/12)
    威斯康星 Wisconsin13642.10101 5520.717426 89246.19
    俄亥俄 Ohio7851.0145 2920.335811 70010.01
    艾奥瓦 Iowa7790.9154 1030.186914 46045.83
    明尼苏达 Minnesota6350.9369 9980.2711011 36120.14
    印第安纳 Indiana5951.0618 09526.88
    密歇根 Michigan5411.1549 4740.509123 09623.13
    密苏里 Missouri3550.3720 7080.085811 38818.56
    伊利诺伊 Illinois2580.3624 5600.099572705.74
    内布拉斯加 Nebraska2380.5293 8190.2139418 46395.45
    北达科他 North Dakota1170.4545 9330.12393266034.90
    堪萨斯 Kansas1100.1934 6650.08315690523.70
    中西部合计 Total58450.81569 7080.1897153 73122.50
    东北部
    Northeast
    (5/9)
    纽约 New York13213.96130 7461.899929 84215.34
    宾夕法尼亚 Pennsylvania10481.9943 5240.604274 17657.94
    佛蒙特 Vermont6559.6382 1526.8512515 974256.00
    缅因 Maine4566.0022 3631.7249638247.48
    马萨诸塞 Massachusetts1331.8533060.662532904.73
    东北部合计 Total38443.00289 2111.5475134 24923.96
    南部
    South
    (7/17)
    北卡罗来纳 North Carolina3470.7517 2960.215039 67737.83
    德克萨斯 Texas2330.9499 6770.0842842 43014.63
    肯塔基 Kentucky1850.2578910.064338468.61
    弗吉尼亚 Virginia1630.3811 4720.157062797.36
    佛罗里达 Florida1260.2772490.075856462.63
    马里兰 Maryland1210.9869590.355850088.28
    佐治亚 Georgia1020.2528810.032852214.92
    南部合计 Total15440.25179 6730.07116124 8049.99
      Source: NASS 2020 Organic Survey https://www.nass.usda.gov/Publications/AgCensus/2017/Online_Resources/Organics/organics_1_001%20_001.pdf.
    由于篇幅限制, 表中所列各州仅为有机农场数量超过100的州。例如, 8/13代表西部共13个州中有8个州的有机农场数量超过100, 以下同理。第4列、第6列以及第9列数值具体算法为: 当地有机农场数/该地农场总数、当地有机农地面积/该地农业用地总面积、当地有机商品销售额/该地人口总数。
    各地区合计数值为: 该地区所有州(包括未列举州)对应数据的总和或总比例。阿拉斯加、亚拉巴马以及印第安纳州部分有机数据缺失。Due to space constraints, the states listed in the table are only those with more than 100 organic farms. For example, 8/13 represents that the numbers of organic farms of the 8 states in 13 states of the West exceed 100, which is the same below. The values in columns 4, 6 and 9 are calculated as follows: number of local organic farms / total number of local farms, area of local organic agricultural land / total area of local agricultural land, sales of local organic commodities / total population of the place. The total value of each region is the sum or total proportion of the corresponding data of all states (including states not listed) in the region. Organic data of Alaska, Alabama and Indiana are missing.
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2021-08-04
  • 录用日期:  2021-11-22
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-12-11
  • 刊出日期:  2022-03-07

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