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覆盖措施对土壤碳氮及夏玉米产量和水氮利用的影响

王真 孙军 杜娅丹 孙丹 甘海成 牛文全

王真, 孙军, 杜娅丹, 孙丹, 甘海成, 牛文全. 覆盖措施对土壤碳氮及夏玉米产量和水氮利用的影响[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2022, 30(6): 913−923 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210574
引用本文: 王真, 孙军, 杜娅丹, 孙丹, 甘海成, 牛文全. 覆盖措施对土壤碳氮及夏玉米产量和水氮利用的影响[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2022, 30(6): 913−923 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210574
WANG Z, SUN J, DU Y D, SUN D, GAN H C, NIU W Q. Effects of mulching practices on soil carbon, nitrogen contents, and grain yield, water and nitrogen use efficiencies of summer maize[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2022, 30(6): 913−923 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210574
Citation: WANG Z, SUN J, DU Y D, SUN D, GAN H C, NIU W Q. Effects of mulching practices on soil carbon, nitrogen contents, and grain yield, water and nitrogen use efficiencies of summer maize[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2022, 30(6): 913−923 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210574

覆盖措施对土壤碳氮及夏玉米产量和水氮利用的影响

doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210574
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金项目(52079112, 51679205)资助
详细信息
    作者简介:

    王真, 主要从事节水灌溉理论研究。E-mail: wangzhen521_a@163.com

    通讯作者:

    牛文全, 主要从事水土资源高效利用与节水灌溉研究。E-mail: nwq@nwafu.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: S278; X511

Effects of mulching practices on soil carbon, nitrogen contents, and grain yield, water and nitrogen use efficiencies of summer maize

Funds: This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (52079112, 51679205).
More Information
  • 摘要: 垄作覆膜和秸秆覆盖有利于提高作物产量和降雨利用效率, 但覆盖对土壤碳、氮变化的影响仍不清楚。本文设置2年田间试验, 共3种处理: 垄作覆膜(RFM)、平作覆盖秸秆(SM)和平作不覆盖(NM), 研究覆盖措施对土壤碳、氮及夏玉米产量和水、氮利用效率的影响。结果表明: 与NM相比, RFM处理的5 cm 和10 cm 土壤温度分别显著提高0.5~1.0 ℃和0.2~0.7 ℃ (P<0.05), 加速了土壤有机碳分解, 显著减少土壤有机碳含量4.2% (P<0.05), 增强土壤呼吸速率33.2% (P<0.05); 而SM处理5 cm和10 cm土壤温度分别显著降低0.2~1.5 ℃和0.5~1.0 ℃ (P<0.05), 土壤有机碳含量增加21.3% (P<0.05), 土壤呼吸速率降低44.0% (P<0.05)。RFM处理中垄沟的土壤硝态氮含量大幅度降低(P<0.05), 而SM处理增加了0~80 cm土层土壤硝态氮含量(P<0.05), 减少了深层土壤硝态氮含量; SM和RFM最高分别增加土壤含水率23.8%和15.2% (P<0.05)、玉米氮素吸收增加37.6%和11.3% (P<0.05)。SM和RFM的地上部干物质积累、氮素收获指数以及作物耗水量均提高, 夏玉米产量分别提高16.8%和9.2% (P<0.05)、水分利用效率分别提高13.0%和9.1% (P<0.05)。覆盖秸秆通过增加土壤水分、有机碳含量和氮的有效性, 提高了夏玉米产量和水以及氮吸收利用效率, 是适合半干旱黄土高原雨养农业的有效覆盖方法。
  • 图  1  2019年和2020年夏玉米生长季日气象数据

    Figure  1.  Daily meteorological data during summer maize growing seasons in 2019 and 2020

    图  2  2019年和2020年不同处理夏玉米不同生育期土壤含水率变化

    RFM为垄作覆膜, NM为平作不覆盖, SM为秸秆覆盖。*和**分别代表P<0.05和P<0.01水平3个处理间差异显著, ns代表P˃0.05。误差棒为不同处理标准误差的平均值。

    Figure  2.  Soil moisture contents at different growth stages of summer maize under different treatments in 2019 and 2020

    RFM is ridge-furrow planting with plastic film mulching, NM is conventional planting without mulching, SM is conventional planting with straw mulching. * and ** mean significant differences among 3 treatments at P˂0.05 and P˂0.01, respectively, ns means P˃0.05. Bars indicate the averages of the standard errors of different treatments.

    图  3  2020年夏玉米生长季当地相同日期日气温的变化和不同处理地温及土壤呼吸速率

    RFM为垄作覆膜, NM为平作不覆盖, SM为秸秆覆盖。*和**分别代表P<0.05和P<0.01水平3个处理间差异显著, ns代表P˃0.05。误差棒为不同处理标准误差的平均值。

    Figure  3.  Local daily air temperature for the same date and soil temperature and respiration rate under different treatments during summer maize growing season in 2020

    RFM is ridge-furrow planting with plastic film mulching, NM is conventional planting without mulching, SM is conventional planting with straw mulching. * and ** mean significant differences among 3 treatments at P˂0.05 and P˂0.01, respectively, ns means P˃0.05. Bars indicate the averages of the standard errors of different treatments.

    图  4  2019年和2020年不同处理土壤有机碳及硝态氮含量变化

    RFM为垄作覆膜, NM为平作不覆盖, SM为秸秆覆盖。不同小写字母代表同一年份不同处理间在 P<0.05水平差异显著。*和**分别代表P<0.05和P<0.01水平3个处理间差异显著, ns表示无显著性差异。RFM is ridge-furrow planting with plastic film mulching, NM is conventional planting without mulching, SM is conventional planting with straw mulching. Different lowercase letters represent significant differences at P<0.05 level among treatments in the same year. * and ** mean significant differences among 3 treatments at P˂0.05 and P˂0.01, respectively, ns means P>0.05.

    Figure  4.  Soil organic carbon and soil nitrate nitrogen contents under different mulching treatments in 2019 and 2020

    图  5  2019年和2020年不同生育期不同处理夏玉米地上部干物质积累量

    RFM为垄作覆膜, NM为平作不覆盖, SM为秸秆覆盖。不同小写字母代表不同处理间在P<0.05水平差异显著。误差棒为不同处理标准误差的平均值。

    Figure  5.  Dry matter accumulation aboveground of summer maize under different treatments at the jointing stage (S1), tasseling stage (S2), silking stage (S3), grain filling stage (S4) and maturity (S5) in 2019 and 2020

    RFM is ridge-furrow planting with plastic film mulching, NM is conventional planting without mulching, SM is conventional planting with straw mulching. Different lowercase letters represent significant differences at P<0.05 level among treatments. Bars indicate the averages of the standard errors of different treatments.

    表  1  2019年和2020年不同处理夏玉米百粒重、产量、吸氮量、氮素收获指数、耗水量及水分利用效率

    Table  1.   100-grain weight, grain yield, nitrogen uptake, nitrogen harvest index, evapotranspiration and water use efficiency of summer maize under different treatments in 2019 and 2020

    年份
    Year
    处理
    Treatment
    百粒重100-grain
    weight (g)
    产量Yield
    (t·hm−2)
    植株吸氮量
    Plant nitrogen uptake (kg·hm−2)
    籽粒吸氮量
    Ear nitrogen uptake (kg·hm−2)
    氮素收获指数
    Nitrogen harvest index (%)
    作物耗水量
    Evapotranspiration (mm)
    水分利用效率Water use efficiency (kg·hm−2·mm−1)
    2020NM32.1±1.44c9.34±0.15c205.0±9.20c99.6±6.79c48.68401b23.0c
    RFM33.5±2.25b10.20±0.45b228.2±8.43b113.2±6.50b49.64 410ab25.1ab
    SM34.9±2.10a10.91±0.14a282.1±10.86a137.1±8.22a51.87421a26.0b
    2019NM32.3±1.27c9.44±0.34c354e26.7b
    RFM33