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离心微滤对猪场废水固液分离效果研究

胡旭朝 董红敏 尹福斌 陈永杏

胡旭朝, 董红敏, 尹福斌, 陈永杏. 离心微滤对猪场废水固液分离效果研究[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2022, 30(6): 1027−1035 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210576
引用本文: 胡旭朝, 董红敏, 尹福斌, 陈永杏. 离心微滤对猪场废水固液分离效果研究[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2022, 30(6): 1027−1035 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210576
HU X Z, DONG H M, YIN F B, CHEN Y X. Effect of centrifugal microfiltration on solid-liquid separation of pig farm wastewater[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2022, 30(6): 1027−1035 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210576
Citation: HU X Z, DONG H M, YIN F B, CHEN Y X. Effect of centrifugal microfiltration on solid-liquid separation of pig farm wastewater[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2022, 30(6): 1027−1035 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210576

离心微滤对猪场废水固液分离效果研究

doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210576
基金项目: 国家重点研发计划项目(2018YFD1100505)、财政部和农业农村部国家现代农业产业技术体系资助
详细信息
    作者简介:

    胡旭朝, 研究方向为农业废弃物处理与资源化利用。E-mail: huxuzhao@caas.cn

    通讯作者:

    尹福斌, 主要从事畜牧环境工程方面研究。E-mail: yinfubin@caas.cn

  • 中图分类号: X713

Effect of centrifugal microfiltration on solid-liquid separation of pig farm wastewater

Funds: The study was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2018YFD1100505) and China Agriculture Research System of Ministry of Finance and Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs.
More Information
  • 摘要: 固液分离是畜禽废水处理的关键技术, 不仅可以将固体物质分离出来进一步肥料化利用, 还可减少废水中污染物浓度从而降低后续处理负荷。本文主要针对传统的固液分离设备效果差和效率低的问题, 以离心微滤机为研究对象, 通过系统监测, 科学评价猪场废水总固体浓度(1%、2%、3%、4%和5%)和离心微滤机筛网孔径(15 µm、25 µm和50 µm)对去除率的影响。结果表明, 随着总固体浓度的增高和筛网孔径的减小, 水质指标的去除率有增加趋势。随筛网孔径的增大离心微滤机单位时间内的处理量也随之增加, 50 µm时处理量为14~19 m3∙h−1, 15 µm与25 µm时处理量为2~7 m3∙h−1。综合考虑, 总固体浓度为5%和筛网孔径为50 µm为最佳处理组, 水质指标中总固体浓度、化学需氧量和总磷的去除率分别为57%、29%和43%。该离心微滤机与其他固液分离设备相比, 具有分离效果好和能耗低的优点, 因此在处理猪场废水时具有较好的应用前景。
  • 图  1  离心微滤工艺流程图

    1. 进料口; 2. 滤网; 3. 搅拌泵; 4. 储水桶; 5. 止水阀; 6. 螺杆泵; 7. 微滤机; 8. 固体储存池; 9. 液体储存池。1. feed inlet; 2. screen; 3. mixing pump; 4. water storage bucket; 5. water stop valve; 6. screw pump; 7. microfiltration machine; 8. solid storage pool; 9. liquid storage pool.

    Figure  1.  Flow chart of the centrifugal microfiltration process

    图  2  离心微滤机的示意图

    1. 进料口; 2. 微滤液体出口; 3. 浓缩污泥出口; 4. 流量调节器; 5.自动加油脂器; 6. 筛网; 7. 电机; 8. 支撑脚。1. feed inlet; 2. microfiltration liquid outlet; 3. concentrated sludge outlet; 4. flow regulator; 5. automatic greaser; 6. filter mesh; 7. motor; 8. support foot.

    Figure  2.  Schematic diagram of centrifugalmicrofiltration

    图  3  猪场废水总固体浓度与酸碱度和电导率(a)、浊度和化学需氧量(b)、总氮和氨氮(c)及总磷(d)的关系

    Figure  3.  Correlations between total solid concentration with pH and electrical conductivity (a), turbidity and chemical oxygen demand (b), total nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen contents (c) and total phosphorus content (d)

    图  4  总固体浓度和筛网孔径下离心微滤机的猪场废水总固体(a)、浊度(b)、化学需氧量(c)、总氮(d)、总磷(e)和氨氮(f)的去除效果

    不同小写字母表示筛网孔径对去除率在P<0.05水平影响显著; 不同大写字母表示总固体浓度对去除率在P<0.05水平影响显著。Different lowercase letters represent significant differences in the removal rate with different mesh sizes at P<0.05 level; and different capital letters represent significant differences in the removal rate with different total solid concentrations at P<0.05 level.

    Figure  4.  Separation efficiencies of total solid (a), turbidity (b), chemical oxygen demand (c), total nitrogen (d), total phosphorus (e), and ammonia nitrogen (f) of centrifugal microfiltration with different sizes under different total solid concentration of pig farm wastewater

    图  5  猪场废水总固体浓度和筛网孔径对处理量的影响

    Figure  5.  Effects of total solid concentration of pig farm wastewater and mesh size on treatment capacity

    表  1  原始猪场废水的特性

    Table  1.   Properties of the raw pig farm wastewater

    指标 Index数值 Value
    总固体浓度 Total solid concentration (%)0.5~8.0
    pH5.73~7.31
    电导率 Electrical conductivity (µS·cm−1)4360~9307
    浊度 Turbidity (NTU)5595~39 720
    化学需氧量 Chemical oxygen demand (mg·L−1)6720~72 650
    总氮 Total nitrogen (mg·L−1)464~2460
    总磷 Total phosphorus (mg·L−1)442~4500
    氨氮 Ammonia nitrogen (mg·L−1)300~1248
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  猪粪固液分离主要试验仪器的设备参数

    Table  2.   Parameters of equipment used for the solid-liquid separation of pig farm wastewater

    设备仪器
    Equipment instrument
    参数
    Parameter
    数值
    Value
    搅拌泵 Mixing pump功率 Power3 kW
    储水桶 Water storage bucket体积 Volume8 m3
    滤网 Screen孔径 Mesh size1 cm
    螺杆泵 Screw pump功率 Power4 kW
    微滤机 Microfiltration machine功率 Power7.5 kW
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  离心微滤机进水和产水水质指标

    Table  3.   Water quality indexes of inlet and produced water of centrifugal microfiltration machine

    指标
    Index
    进水
    Raw pig farm wastewater
    出水 Separated wastewater
    15 µm筛网
    15 µm mesh
    25 µm筛网
    25 µm mesh
    50 µm筛网
    50 µm mesh
    总固体浓度 Total solid (%)0.5~8.00.3~1.70.6~2.20.6~2.8
    pH5.73~7.315.88~6.956.1~7.226.32~7.27
    电导率 Electrical conductivity (µS∙cm−1)4360~93076001~77465077~11 5004339~10 870
    浊度 Turbidity (NTU)5595~39 7208490~18 4504695~26 7504920~32 340
    化学需氧量 Chemical oxygen demand (mg·L−1)6720~72 6509740~35 0806720~45 48012 350~46 360
    总氮 Total nitrogen (mg·L−1)464~2460312~1950640~2000620~2440
    总磷 Total phosphorus (mg·L−1)442~4500456~1602208~3780396~3220
    氨氮 Ammonia nitrogen (mg·L−1)300~1248432~970340~1167276~1504
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  猪场废水总固体浓度和离心微滤机筛网孔径对于水质指标去除率影响的显著性分析(P值)

    Table  4.   Significance analysis of total solid concentration and mesh size on wastewater characters (removal rates of wastewater indexes) of pig farm wastewater after solid-liquid separation (P value)

    变异来源
    Variation source
    总固体浓度
    Total solid
    浊度
    Turbidity
    化学需氧量
    Chemical oxygen demand
    总氮
    Total nitrogen
    总磷
    Total phosphorus
    氨氮
    Ammonia nitrogen
    孔径 Mesh size (MA)<0.05<0.05<0.05<0.050.260.11
    总固体浓度 Total solid (TS)<0.05<0.050.09<0.05<0.050.11
    MA×TS0.940.160.950.540.870.26
      P<0.05水平上因素之间相关性显著; P>0.05水平上因素之间相关性不显著。 There was significant correlation between the factors at the level of P<0.05; there was no significant correlation between the factors at the level of P>0.05.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  不同筛网孔径的离心微滤机处理猪场废水的经济性分析

    Table  5.   Economic analysis of solid-liquid separation of pig farm wastewater with centrifugal microfiltration with different size

    项目 Project筛网孔径 Mesh size (µm)
    152550
    处理量 Processing amount (m3∙h−1)5515
    离心微滤机的购置费 Cost of centrifugal microfiltration equipment (×104 ¥)454515
    离心微滤机折旧费用 Depreciation cost of centrifugal microfiltration (¥∙m−3)0.560.560.18
    离心微滤机能耗 Electricity consumption of centrifugal microfiltration (¥∙m−3)1.210.830.23
    人工费 Cost of labor (¥∙m−3)0.670.670.67
    处理成本 Treatment cost (¥∙t−1)2.442.061.08
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  不同固液分离技术的效果与能耗

    Table  6.   Different solid-liquid separation of separation effect and energy consumption

    废水类型
    Wastewater type
    水质指标
    Water quality index
    固液分离类型Solid-liquid
    separation type
    筛网孔径
    Mesh aperture (mm)
    去除率Removal
    rate (%)
    处理量Treatment
    amount (m3·h−1)
    能耗Power
    consumption
    参考文献
    Reference
    猪场废水
    Pig farm wastewater
    COD: 10 086~19 051 mg∙L−1振动筛
    Vibrating screen
    0.93, 1.20, 1.519.26~23.240~801.5 kW[24]
    TN: 2350~1367 mg∙L−113.9~31.4
    ${\rm{NH}}_4^ + $-N: 528~250 mg∙L−10.3~1.2
    TP: 197~107 mg∙L−110.4~18.7
    猪场废水
    Pig farm wastewater
    COD: 12 000~18 000 mg∙L−1滤网
    Filter screen
    NA25~30NANA[26]
    牛场废水
    Cattle farm wastewater
    TS: 13%螺旋挤压机
    Screw extractor
    0.3, 0.5, 0.741.5~60.915~20NA[25]
    VS: 83.1%7.3~11.6
    ${\rm{NH}}_4^ + $-N: 790 mg∙L−1
    猪场废水
    Pig farm wastewater
    TS, TP, TN: 5.6 mg∙L−1螺旋挤压机
    Screw extractor
    0.5, 0.75, 1, 3TS 19.2~49.4TP 12.8~49.4
    TN 4.4~19.2
    NANA[27]
    猪场废水
    Pig farm wastewater
    TS: 2.0%~8%沉降离心机
    Sedimentation centrifuge
    NATS 43~61
    SS 73
    4~1015 kW[23]
    猪场废水
    Pig farm wastewater
    TS: 0.5%~8.0%离心微滤机
    Centrifugal microfiltration
    0.015, 0.025, 0.055714~197.5 kW本研究
    This study
    COD: 6720~72 650 mg∙L−129
    TP: 442~4500 mg∙L−143
      COD: 化学需氧量; TN: 总氮; NH4+-N: 氨氮; TP: 总磷; TS: 总固体含量; VS: 挥发型固体; NA: 无相关参数。COD: chemical oxygen demand; TN: total nitrogen; NH4+-N: ammonia nitrogen; TP: total phosphorus; TS: total solids; VS: volatile solid; NA: not available</