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农户采纳有机农业的影响因素及其空间效应

卢瑜 向平安 余亮

卢瑜, 向平安, 余亮. 农户采纳有机农业的影响因素及其空间效应−基于新疆农户调查数据[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2022, 30(1): 153−165 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210587
引用本文: 卢瑜, 向平安, 余亮. 农户采纳有机农业的影响因素及其空间效应−基于新疆农户调查数据[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2022, 30(1): 153−165 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210587
LU Y, XIANG P A, YU L. Influencing factors and spatial effects of organic agriculture adoption: Based on survey data of farmers in Xinjiang[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2022, 30(1): 153−165 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210587
Citation: LU Y, XIANG P A, YU L. Influencing factors and spatial effects of organic agriculture adoption: Based on survey data of farmers in Xinjiang[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2022, 30(1): 153−165 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210587

农户采纳有机农业的影响因素及其空间效应基于新疆农户调查数据

doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210587
基金项目: 湖南省自然科学基金项目(2021JJ30369)和湖南省哲学社会科学基金项目(19YBA092)资助
详细信息
    作者简介:

    卢瑜, 主要从事有机农业研究。E-mail: 634279803@qq.com

    通讯作者:

    向平安, 主要从事生态农业研究。E-mail: xpa830@126.com

  • 中图分类号: S345

Influencing factors and spatial effects of organic agriculture adoption: Based on survey data of farmers in Xinjiang

Funds: This study was supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Hunan Province (2021JJ30369), the Social Science Foundation of Hunan Province (19YBA092).
More Information
  • 摘要: 洞悉农户采纳有机农业的影响机制是设计有机农业推广政策的前提。本研究通过构建空间杜宾Probit模型, 利用新疆农户调查数据, 探究了农户采纳有机农业的影响因素及空间效应, 并将影响因素的空间效应分解为直接效应和空间溢出效应, 以明确其作用路径。研究发现: 1)示范区、加入合作组织、社会网络、社会规范、合同保障、社会信任、风险偏好、引导政策、激励政策、劳动力、农户认知和年龄均对有机农业采纳行为有显著正向影响, 且总效应依序递减; 其中不同维度社会网络的作用存在较大差异, 产业组织网络对于农户有机农业采纳正向作用大于邻里网络。2)农户有机农业采纳行为存在显著空间依赖性, 采纳行为主要受各因素直接效应的影响, 但邻近农户特征变量的空间溢出效应不容忽视, 尤其是国家有机产品认证示范(创建)区和合作组织的空间溢出效应显著。公共部门的有机农业支持政策可向示范性经营主体倾斜, 通过加大宣传推广、财政、金融与技术支持, 大力培育和发展农业龙头企业和农民合作组织等产业组织, 创建有机产品认证示范区, 提高农户的有机农业认知来促进农户采纳有机农业。
  • 表  1  新疆调查区域及主要特征

    Table  1.   Xinjing survey area and its main characteristics

    区域
    Area
    地区(自治州)
    Region (autonomous prefecture)
    县(市、区)
    County (city, regiment)
    主要有机产品
    Organic product
    属示范创建区
    Demonstration area
    取样数量
    Samples number
    南疆
    South Xinjiang
    巴音郭楞蒙古自治州
    Bayingolin Mongolian Autonomous Prefecture
    焉耆县
    Yanqi County
    有机酿酒葡萄
    Organic wine grapes
    否 No30
    若羌县
    Ruoqiang County
    有机红枣
    Organic red jujube
    是 Yes66
    阿克苏地区
    Aksu Region
    阿克苏市
    Aksu City
    有机苹果、杏、红枣
    Organic apple, apricot, red jujube
    否 No30
    温宿县
    Wensu County
    有机核桃、红枣
    Organic walnut, red jujube
    是 Yes75
    吐鲁番地区
    Turpan Region
    鄯善县
    Shanshan County
    有机哈密瓜、葡萄
    Organic Hami melon, grape
    否 No25
    喀什地区
    Kashgar Region
    泽普县
    Zepu County
    有机红枣、苹果、土豆
    Organic jujube, apple, potato
    是 Yes45
    北疆
    North Xinjiang
    博尔塔拉蒙古自治州
    Bortala Mongolian Autonomous Prefecture
    农五师81团
    81st Regiment of the Fifth Division of Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps
    有机棉花
    Organic cotton
    否 No25
    博乐市
    Bole City
    有机牛羊、玉米、鱼类
    Organic cattle, sheep, corn, fish
    否 No30
    伊犁地区
    Yili Region
    农四师76团
    76st Regiment of the Fourth Division of Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps
    有机牛
    Organic cattle
    否 No33
    农四师73团场
    73st Regiment of the Fourth Division of Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps
    有机葡萄
    Organic grape
    否 No31
    伊宁县
    Yining County
    有机水稻
    Organic rice
    否 No19
    塔城地区
    Tacheng Region
    裕民县
    Yumin County
    有机红花、小麦
    Organic safflower, wheat
    是 Yes75
    和布克赛尔蒙古自治县
    Hebukeser Mongolian Autonomous County
    有机棉花、有机牛
    Organic cotton, cattle
    否 No32
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  新疆调查区受访农户的基本情况

    Table  2.   Basic information of farmers interviewed in Xinjiang survey area

    变量
    Variable
    分类
    Classification
    频数
    Frequency
    百分比
    Rate (%)
    变量
    Variable
    分类
    Classification
    频数
    Frequency
    百分比
    Rate (%)
    有机农业采纳
    Organic agriculture adoption
    否 No 210 40.7 家庭年收入
    Annual household income (×104¥)
    <5 56 32.6
    是 Yes 306 59.3 5~10 70 40.7
    性别 Gender 男 Male 84 48.8 11~15 21 12.2
    女 Female 88 51.2 >15 25 14.5
    文化程度 Education
    小学 Primary school 10 5.8 农业收入占比
    Proportion of agricultural income (%)
    <25 26 15.1
    初中 Junior middle school 50 29.1 25~49 30 17.4
    高中或中专 High school or secondary school 68 39.5 50~75 71 41.3
    大专及以上 College or above 44 25.6 >75 45 26.2
    合同保障
    Contract guarantee
    否 No 113 65.7 来自有机认证示范(创建)区
    Organic certification demonstration area
    否 No 98 57.0
    是 Yes 59 34.3 是 Yes 74 43.0
    加入合作组织
    Join cooperative organizations
    否 No 79 45.9 地区 Region 南疆
    South Xinjiang
    93 54.7
    是 Yes 93 54.1 北疆
    North Xinjiang
    79 45.3
    风险偏好
    Risk preference
    风险偏好
    Preference for high risk
    100 58.1 种类
    Type
    林果
    Forestry and fruit
    75 43.6
    风险中性 Risk neutral 52 30.2 种植 Planting 58 33.7
    风险厌恶 Risk aversion 20 11.6 养殖 Breeding 39 22.7
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  社会资本变量说明及其赋值

    Table  3.   Explanation and assignment of social capital

    变量及含义
    Variable and meaning
    变量赋值
    Assignment
    社会网络
    Social network
    对信息共享、互动学习、互惠支持3方面题项采用李克特5点量表测量, 取量表打分的平均值。
    The items of information sharing, interactive learning and reciprocal support are measured by Likert 5-point scale, and the average scale score is assigned to the variable of social network.
    社会信任
    Social trust
    对邻里街坊、亲朋好友、相关企业、合作组织的信任程度4个题项采用李克特5点量表测量, 取量表打分平均值。
    The four items of trust in neighbors, relatives and friends, related enterprises and cooperative organizations are measured with Likert 5-point scale, and the average scale score is assigned to the variable of social trust.
    社会规范
    Social norms
    对价值导向和社会认同两个维度的题项采用李克特5点量表测量, 取量表打分的平均值。
    The items of value orientation and social identity were measured with Likert 5-point scale, and the average scale score is assigned to the variable of social norms.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  公共政策变量说明及其赋值

    Table  4.   Explanation and assignment of public policy

    变量及含义
    Variable and Meaning
    变量赋值
    Assignment
    引导政策
    Guiding policy
    对“政府对有机农业的宣传力度”和“政府对于农业农村环境治理的宣传力度”两个题项, 采用李克特5点量表测量, 取其量表打分平均值。
    The items of “the government’s publicity for organic agriculture” and “the government’s publicity for agricultural and rural environmental governance” are measured by Likert 5-point scale, and the average scale score is assigned to the variable of guiding policy.
    激励政策
    Incentive policy
    对“有机农业财政补贴获取难易程度”和“有机农业技术、金融和税收等其他支持获取难易程度”两个题项, 采用李克特5点量表测量, 取其量表打分平均值。
    The items “how easy is to obtain financial subsidies for organic agriculture?” and “how easy is to obtain other support such as organic agricultural technology, finance and taxation support?” are measured by Likert 5-point, and the average scale score is assigned to the variable of incentive policy.
    约束政策
    Compulsory policy
    对“政府对农药化肥使用、农膜秸秆禁烧和养殖粪污废弃物处理的监管和惩罚力度”和“政府对违反有机生产及认证标准行为的监管和惩罚力度”两个题项, 采用李克特5点量表测量, 取其量表打分的平均值。
    The two items of “the government’s supervision and punishment on the use of pesticides and fertilizers, the prohibition of burning agricultural film straw and the treatment of breeding fecal waste” and “the government’s supervision and punishment on violations of organic production and certification standards” are measured with Likert 5-point scale, and the average scale score is assigned to the variable of compulsory policy.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  农户自身因素变量说明及其赋值

    Table  5.   Explanation and assignment of farmers’ individual factors

    变量及含义
    Variable and meaning
    变量赋值
    Assignment
    农户认知
    Farmer’s cognition
    效益认知
    Benefit cognition
    对经济效益认知、生态效益认知、社会效益认知题项采用李克特5点量表进行测量, 取量表打分的平均值。
    The items of economic benefit cognition, ecological benefit cognition and social benefit cognition were measured with Likert 5-point scale, and the average value of the scale score is assigned to benefit cognition.
    风险认知
    Risk perception
    有机农业的生产经营风险: 非常低=1; 低=2; 一般=3; 高=4; 非常高=5
    Risks of organic agriculture: very low=1, low=2, general=3, high=4, very high=5
    前景认知
    Prospect cognition
    有机农业发展前景如何: 非常好=5; 好=4; 一般=3; 不好=2; 非常不好=1
    Development prospect of organic agriculture: very good=5; good=4; general=3; bad=2; very bad=1
    能力认知
    Ability cognition
    对有机农业技术掌握能力和运用能力题项采用李克特5点量表测量, 取量表打分的平均值。
    The items of mastering ability and application ability of organic agricultural technology were measured by Likert 5-point scale, and the average value of the scale score is assigned to ability cognition.
    人口社会学特征
    Sociological characteristics of population
    性别 Gender户主性别: 男=1, 女=0 Household head’s gender: male=1, female=0
    年龄 Age户主实际年龄(岁) Household head’s actual age
    文化程度
    Education
    户主受教育水平: 小学=1, 初中=2, 高中或中专=3, 大专及以上=4
    Household head’s education level: primary school=1, junior middle school=2, high school or technical secondary school=3, junior college or above=4
    风险偏好
    Risk preference
    户主风险偏好: 风险偏好=3, 风险中性=2, 风险厌恶=1
    Household head’s risk preference: risk preference=3, risk neutrality=2, risk aversion=1
    是否加入合作组织
    Cooperative organization
    加入=1, 未加入=0
    Join=1, not join=0
    是否有合同保障
    Contact guarantee
    签订了订单销售合同=1, 未签订订单销售合同=0
    Signed sales contract=1, unsigned sales contract=0
    资源禀赋
    Resource endowment
    劳动力
    Labor force
    实际家庭劳动力数量
    Number of household labor force
    经营农地面积
    Operating farmland area
    实际经营农地面积(含流转土地面积)
    Actual operating agricultural land area (including transferred land area) hm2
    家庭年收入
    Annual household income
    上一年度家庭总收入(万元): <5=1, 5~10=2, 10~15=3, 15~20=4, >20=5
    Total annual household income in the previous year (104 ¥): <5=1, 5−10=2, 10−15=3, 15−20=4, >20=5
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  区位变量说明及其赋值

    Table  6.   Explanation and assignment of location variables

    变量及含义
    Variable and meaning
    变量赋值
    Assignment
    空间位置
    Spatial location
    农户家庭地址的经纬度坐标
    Longitude and latitude coordinates of household address
    来源区域
    Regions where farmers come from
    农户是否来自南疆: 来自南疆=1, 来自北疆=0
    Whether the farmers are from southern Xinjiang or not: from southern Xinjiang=1, from northern Xinjiang=0
    来自国家有机产品认证示范(创建)区
    Organic certification demonstration area
    农户是否来自国家有机产品认证示范(创建)区: 示范(创建)区=1, 非示范(创建)区=0
    Whether the farmers are from organic certification demonstration area or not: yes=1, no=0
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  7  新疆农户调查问卷的信度和效度检验

    Table  7.   Reliability and validity of the farmers’ survey questionnaire in Xinjiang

    变量指标
    Variables
    ɑ系数
    ɑ coefficient
    组合信度(CR)
    Composite reliability
    平均变异萃取量(AVE)
    Average variation extraction
    农户认知 Farmer’s cognition前景认知 Prospect cognition0.7730.7120.503
    效益认知 Benefit cognition0.8910.8310.534
    风险认知 Risk cognition0.8490.8250.520
    行为能力认知 Ability cognition0.8330.8170.516
    社会资本 Social capital社会网络 Social network信息共享 Information sharing0.7970.8430.525
    互动学习 Interactive learning0.9090.8540.527
    互惠支持 Reciprocal support0.9110.8710.548
    社会规范 Social norms价值导向 Value orientation0.7700.7510.508
    社会认同 Social conformity0.9360.8820.592
    社会信任 Social trust0.8680.8420.524
    政府政策 Government policy引导政策 Guiding policy0.8370.8260.522
    激励政策 Incentive policy0.8870.8460.528
    约束政策 Compulsory policy0.8390.8200.519
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  8  有机农户和常规农户的描述性统计和差异显著性检验结果

    Table  8.   Descriptive statistics and significance test results of organic farmers and conventional farmers

    变量
    Variable
    有机农户
    Organic farmers
    常规农户
    Conventional farmers
    组间差异统计检验
    Difference significance test
    T值/卡方值
    T value / Chi square value
    P
    社会网络(邻里) Neighborhood network3.72±0.923.40±0.903.210.07
    社会网络(组织) Industrial organization network4.11±0.773.96±0774.130.00
    社会规范 Social norms3.96±0.833.70±0.823.670.05
    社会信任 Social trust4.09±1.133.99±1.173.560.00
    引导政策 Guiding policy4.23±1.023.98±1.153.210.07
    激励政策 Incentive policy4.21±1.003.77±1.274.130.00
    约束政策 Compulsory policy4.14±1.154.01±1.181.670.45
    农户对有机农业的认知 Farmers’ cognition of organic agriculture4.48±0.863.33±0.933.560.00
    家庭年收入 Annual household income2.08±0.982.10±1.070.240.83
    经营农地面积 Operating farmland area6.96±8.985.25±7.15−1.390.19
    劳动力 Labor force2.55±0.972.66±1.27−1.130.23
    性别 Gender0.51±0.500.51±0.500.060.96
    年龄 Age42.01±9.3141.36±8.75−0.460.64
    文化程度 Education2.95±0.972.04±0.950.610.54
    风险偏好 Risk preference2.49±0.672.43±0.73−1.740.08
    加入合作组织 Join cooperative organizations0.84±0.370.10±0.307.880.00
    合同保障 Contract guarantee0.53±0.500.07±0.261.530.31
    来自有机认证示范区 Organic certification demonstration area0.69±0.430.31±0.528.230.00
    来自南疆 From southern Xinjiang0.63±0.520.37±0.435.830.00
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  9  空间依赖性检验和模型比较

    Table  9.   Spatial dependence test and model comparison

    基于不同阈值距离空间权重矩阵的模型
    Model specification
    后验模型概率
    Model probabilities
    空间自回归系数(ρ)
    Spatial auto-regressive coefficient
    W1: d1=1.5 km0.5310.39***
    W2: d2=2.0 km0.2730.36***
    W3: d3=2.5 km0.2810.28***
    W4: d4=3.0 km0.1520.23***
    W5: d5=3.5 km0.0930.18
    W6: d6=4.0 km0.0610.13
      W1−W6为基于6种不同地理阈值距离的空间权重矩阵, d1−d6为6种不同的地理距离阈值。*、**和***分别表示在P<10%、P<5%和P<1%水平显著。W1−W6 are spatial weight matrices based on six geographical threshold distances, and d1−d6 are six geographical distance thresholds. *, ** and *** represent the significance at the levels of P<10%, P<5% and P<1%, respectively.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  10  空间杜宾Probit模型估计结果

    Table  10.   Results of the spatial Durbin Probit model

    变量
    Variable
    系数
    Coefficient
    标准差
    Standard deviation
    变量的空间滞后项
    Spatial lag term of variables
    系数
    Coefficient
    标准差
    Standard deviation
    社会网络(邻里)
    Neighborhood network
    0.0593**0.0285W×社会网络(邻里)
    W × neighborhood network
    0.0361*0.1376
    社会网络(组织)
    Industrial organization network
    0.1117***0.0279W×社会网络(组织)
    W × industrial organization network
    0.0266*0.1185
    社会规范
    Social norms
    0.0823***0.0184W×社会规范
    W × social norms
    0.0168*0.1032
    社会信任
    Social trust
    0.0824**0.0373W×社会信任
    W × social trust
    0.0291*0.1366
    引导政策
    Guiding policy
    0.0766**−0.0346W×引导政策
    W × guiding policy
    0.0076*0.1602
    激励政策
    Incentive policy
    0.0370**−0.0274W×激励政策
    W × incentive policy
    −0.0211*0.1261
    约束政策
    Compulsory policy
    0.0062−0.0209W×约束政策
    W × compulsory policy
    0.14650.0984
    农户认知
    Farmer’s cognition
    0.0580**−0.0242W×农户认知
    W × farmer’s cognition
    0.0507*−0.0961
    家庭年收入
    Annual household income
    −0.0078−0.0195W×家庭年收入
    W × annual household income
    0.2016−0.0918
    农地面积
    Actual arable land area
    −0.0141−0.0150W×农地面积
    W × actual arable land area
    −0.0141−0.0678
    劳动力
    Labor force
    0.0290**0.0146W×劳动力
    W × labor force
    0.1901*−0.0831
    性别
    Gender
    −0.00150.0331W×性别
    W × gender
    −0.1300−0.1900
    年龄
    Age
    0.0337**0.0735W×年龄
    W × age
    −0.0538−0.0377
    文化程度
    Education
    −0.07500.0199W×文化程度
    W × education
    0.0647−0.0844
    风险偏好
    Risk preference
    0.0298**0.0212W×风险偏好
    W × risk preference
    0.0113−0.0841
    是否加入合作组织
    Join cooperative organization
    0.1116**0.0403W×是否加入合作组织
    W × join cooperative organization
    0.1132*−0.1591
    是否有合同保障
    Contract guarantee
    0.0545**0.0422W×是否有合同保障
    W × contract guarantee
    0.0768*−0.1405
    是否来自示范(创建)区
    Organic certification demonstration area
    0.2063***−0.0577W×是否示范区农户
    W × organic certification demonstration area
    0.1148*0.1559
    是否来自南疆
    From southern Xinjiang
    0.1171**−0.0450W×是否是南疆农户
    W × from southern Xinjiang
    0.0428−0.1911
    常数项
    Constant term
    0.9032−1.3859R20.8988
    空间自回归系数
    Spatial auto-regressive coefficient
    0.3911***0.0230Wald chi273.02***
      *、**、***分别表示在P<10%、P<5%和P<1%水平显著。*, ** and *** represent the significance at the levels of P<10%, P<5% and P<1%, respectively.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  11  空间效应分解结果

    Table  11.   Decomposition results of spatial effect

    变量
    Variable
    直接效应
    Direct effect
    空间溢出效应
    Spatial spillover effect
    总效应
    Total effect
    社会网络(邻里) Neighborhood network 0.04*** 0.02** 0.06***
    社会网络(组织) Industrial organization network 0.17*** 0.02** 0.19***
    社会规范 Social norms 0.10*** 0.05** 0.15***
    社会信任 Social trust 0.10*** 0.02** 0.12**
    引导政策 Guiding policy 0.05** 0.03** 0.08**
    激励政策 Incentive policy 0.04** 0.03** 0.07**
    约束政策 Compulsory policy 0.02 0.04 0.06
    农户认知 Farmer’s cognition of organic agriculture 0.04** 0.01** 0.05**
    家庭年收入 Annual household income −0.03 −0.06 −0.06
    农地面积 Operating farmland area 0.01 0.05 0.05
    劳动力 Labor force 0.08** 0.01** 0.09**
    性别 Gender −0.02 0.02 0.00
    年龄 Age 0.04** 0.01 0.05*
    文化程度 Education −0.01 −0.03 −0.04
    风险偏好 Risk preference 0.08*** 0.04 0.12*
    加入合作组织 Join cooperative organization 0.13** 0.08** 0.21**
    合同保障 Contract guarantee 0.10** 0.05** 0.15**
    来自示范(创建)区 Organic certification demonstration area 0.23*** 0.14** 0.37**
    来自南疆 From southern Xinjiang 0.05** 0.02 0.07*
      *、**、***分别表示在P<10%、P<5%和P<1%水平显著。*, ** and *** represent the significance in the levels of P<10%, P<5% and P<1%, respectively.
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-08-30
  • 录用日期:  2021-10-25
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-11-01
  • 刊出日期:  2022-01-08

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