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有机肥替代化肥对紫色土坡耕地氮素流失的影响

胡冬妮 董志新 朱波

胡冬妮, 董志新, 朱波. 有机肥替代化肥对紫色土坡耕地氮素流失的影响[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2022, 30(3): 431−440 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210592
引用本文: 胡冬妮, 董志新, 朱波. 有机肥替代化肥对紫色土坡耕地氮素流失的影响[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2022, 30(3): 431−440 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210592
HU D N, DONG Z X, ZHU B. Impact of substitution of synthetic nitrogen fertilizer with organic fertilizers on nitrogen loss from sloping cropland of purple soil[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2022, 30(3): 431−440 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210592
Citation: HU D N, DONG Z X, ZHU B. Impact of substitution of synthetic nitrogen fertilizer with organic fertilizers on nitrogen loss from sloping cropland of purple soil[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2022, 30(3): 431−440 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210592

有机肥替代化肥对紫色土坡耕地氮素流失的影响

doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210592
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金项目(U20A20107)资助
详细信息
    作者简介:

    胡冬妮, 研究方向为氮转化及氮素面源污染。E-mail: hudongni0@163.com

    通讯作者:

    朱波, 研究方向为养分循环与面源污染控制。E-mail: bzhu@imde.ac.cn

  • 中图分类号: X53

Impact of substitution of synthetic nitrogen fertilizer with organic fertilizers on nitrogen loss from sloping cropland of purple soil

Funds: This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (U20A20107).
More Information
  • 摘要: 为明确紫色土有机肥替代化肥的农学与环境效应, 减少紫色土氮素面源污染, 进一步为紫色土化肥“零增长”策略提供科学依据, 利用紫色土坡地养分管理长期试验平台, 结合自由排水采集器(Free-drain Lysimeter)定位观测, 研究紫色土坡耕地小麦-玉米轮作期间(2012—2013年)不同施肥方式下的土壤无机氮动态、作物产量、氮素流失路径与总量。等氮下设置5个施肥处理: 单施化学氮肥(N)、常规化肥(NPK)、猪厩肥(猪厩肥替代100%的化肥氮, OM)、猪厩肥与氮磷钾配施(猪厩肥替代30%的化肥氮, OMNPK)、秸秆还田与氮磷钾配施(秸秆替代15%的化肥氮, CRNPK), 以不施肥(NF)为对照。结果表明, 紫色土坡耕地壤中流流量占总径流量的54.5%~84.6%, 随壤中流淋失的氮占氮流失总量的90.6%, 以壤中流为介导的氮淋失是紫色土坡耕地氮素流失的首要途径, 且氮淋失量高达12.53~76.72 kg(N)·hm−2, 远高于我国其他地区农田氮淋失量, 紫色土地区是氮淋失的热点区域。与常规施肥(NPK)相比, 有机肥替代化肥显著降低紫色土氮素流失量, 其中猪厩肥(OM)、猪厩肥与氮磷钾配施(OMNPK)、秸秆还田与氮磷钾配施(CRNPK)总氮素流失量分别减少32.1% (P<0.05)、27.5% (P<0.05)与21.2% (P<0.05), 其关键机制在于有机肥替代化肥对氮淋失的减控作用, 通过壤中流淋失的氮素分别减少32.0% (P<0.05)、26.7% (P<0.05)与18.0% (P<0.05); 此外, 氮流失系数分别降低44.8%、38.5%及24.3%, 玉米-小麦轮作系统年产量分别增加23.0%、17.8%及4.1%。因此, 长期有机肥替代化肥能在减量施用化肥的基础上保证作物产量, 同时显著降低紫色土坡耕地氮流失风险, 是当前紫色土坡耕地可推荐的减氮增效技术。
  • 图  1  试验小区设计示意图

    Figure  1.  Sketch map of experimented plot

    图  2  试验期间常规试验小区的降雨、径流量、气温及表土温度(0~10 cm)

    小麦季11月5日施肥,玉米季6月1日施肥。Fertilizer is applied on November 5 in wheat season and on June 1 in maize season, respectively.

    Figure  2.  Rainfall, runoff, air temperature and topsoil temperature (0−10 cm) in the regular plot during the experimental period

    图  3  不同施肥方式下的紫色土表土(0~10 cm)无机氮含量变化

    图中各施肥处理分别为单施氮肥(N)、常规施肥(NPK)、猪厩肥(OM)、猪厩肥与氮磷钾配施(OMNPK)、秸秆还田与氮磷钾配施(CRNPK)及不施肥(NF)。图中两个箭头分别指示小麦季(11月5日)和玉米季(6月1日)施肥。

    Figure  3.  Changes of topsoil (0−10 cm) inorganic nitrogen contents under different fertilization regimes on sloping cropland of purple soil

    Fertilization treatments in the figure are: nitrogen fertilizer only (N), regular synthetic nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizer (NPK), pig manure (OM), combination of pig manure with synthetic nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizer (OMNPK), combined application of straw residue with synthetic nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizer (CRNPK). Two arrows in the figures indicate fertilization on November 5 in wheat season and on June 1 in maize season, respectively.

    图  4  不同施肥方式下紫色土坡耕地的地表径流、壤中流流量和泥沙量

    图中各施肥处理分别为单施氮肥(N)、常规施肥(NPK)、猪厩肥(OM)、猪厩肥与氮磷钾配施(OMNPK)、秸秆还田与氮磷钾配施(CRNPK)及不施肥(NF)。不同小写字母代表施肥处理间差异显著(P<0.05)。

    Figure  4.  Discharge of overland runoff, interflow and sediment yield under different fertilization regimes on sloping cropland of purple soil

    Fertilization treatments in the figure are: nitrogen fertilizer only (N), regular synthetic nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizer (NPK), pig manure (OM), combination of pig manure with synthetic nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizer (OMNPK), combination of straw residue with synthetic nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizer (CRNPK). Different lowercases letters in the figure indicate significant differences among ferilization regimes at P<0.05 level .

    图  5  不同施肥方式下紫色土坡耕地氮素流失路径与总量

    图中各施肥处理分别为单施氮肥(N)、常规施肥(NPK)、猪厩肥(OM)、猪厩肥与氮磷钾配施(OMNPK)、秸秆还田与氮磷钾配施(CRNPK)及不施肥(NF)。不同小写字母代表施肥处理之间差异显著(P<0.05)。

    Figure  5.  Nitrogen loss pathways and fluxes from sloping cropland of purple soil under different fertilization regimes

    Fertilization treatments in the figure are: nitrogen fertilizer only (N), regular synthetic nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizer (NPK), pig manure (OM), combination of pig manure with synthetic nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizer (OMNPK), combination of straw residue with synthetic nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizer (CRNPK). Different lowercases letters in the figure indicate significant differences among treatments at P<0.05 level.

    表  1  不同施肥方式下小麦-玉米轮作系统的作物生物量、产量、总氮流失量及氮流失系数(2012—2013年)

    Table  1.   Biomass, crop yield, nitrogen loss and nitrogen loss coefficient of wheat-maize rotation system under different fertilization regimes (2012−2013)

    施肥方式
    Fertilization regime
    生物量
    Biomass (t∙hm−2)
    产量
    Crop yield (t∙hm−2)
    总氮流失量Total nitrogen loss
    [kg(N)∙hm−2]
    基于单位产量的氮流失系数Nitrogen loss per unit yield (kg∙hm−2∙t−1)
    小麦
    Wheat
    玉米
    Maize
    小麦
    Wheat
    玉米
    Maize
    合计
    Total
    NF3.12±0.41b2.51±0.77d0.84±0.18b1.84±0.62d2.68±0.87c 18.26±3.16a6.81
    N2.19±0.48b4.89±1.03c0.81±0.20b3.23±0.61cd4.04±0.76c 87.50±8.51b21.66
    OM7.80±0.18a10.55±1.01a2.74±0.26a7.21±1.38a9.95±1.41a 53.58±2.69c5.38
    NPK6.62±1.66a9.11±0.44ab2.39±0.36a5.70±0.32ab8.09±0.30ab 78.91±3.34b9.75
    OMNPK7.40±0.90a9.79±1.17a2.50±0.11a7.03±1.37a9.53±1.47ab 57.20±2.38c6.00
    CRNPK7.82±0.79a7.76±0.74b2.69±0.13a5.73±1.37bc8.42±1.39b 62.15±1.25c7.38
      图中各施肥处理分别为单施氮肥(N)、常规施肥(NPK)、猪厩肥(OM)、猪厩肥与氮磷钾配施(OMNPK)、秸秆还田与氮磷钾配施(CRNPK)及不施肥(NF)。不同小写字母代表施肥处理之间差异显著(P<0.05)。Fertilization treatments in the figure are: nitrogen fertilizer only (N), regular synthetic nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizer (NPK), pig manure (OM), combination of pig manure with synthetic nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizer (OMNPK), combination of straw residue with synthetic nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizer (CRNPK). Different lowercases letters in the figure indicate significant differences among fertilization regimes at P<0.05 level.
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