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马铃薯间作对土壤微生物代谢功能多样性的促进效应及其氮素调控作用

王顶 李欢 伊文博 陈林康 赵平 龙光强

王顶, 李欢, 伊文博, 陈林康, 赵平, 龙光强. 马铃薯间作对土壤微生物代谢功能多样性的促进效应及其氮素调控作用[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2022, 30(7): 1164−1173 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210604
引用本文: 王顶, 李欢, 伊文博, 陈林康, 赵平, 龙光强. 马铃薯间作对土壤微生物代谢功能多样性的促进效应及其氮素调控作用[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2022, 30(7): 1164−1173 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210604
WANG D, LI H, YI W B, CHEN L K, ZHAO P, LONG G Q. Promoting effect of potato intercropping on functional diversity of soil microbial metabolism and nitrogen regulation[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2022, 30(7): 1164−1173 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210604
Citation: WANG D, LI H, YI W B, CHEN L K, ZHAO P, LONG G Q. Promoting effect of potato intercropping on functional diversity of soil microbial metabolism and nitrogen regulation[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2022, 30(7): 1164−1173 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210604

马铃薯间作对土壤微生物代谢功能多样性的促进效应及其氮素调控作用

doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210604
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金项目(41967004)和云南省中青年后备人才项目(2017HB027)资助
详细信息
    作者简介:

    王顶, 主要从事土壤有机碳稳定性、微生物的研究。E-mail: 252345866@qq.com

    通讯作者:

    龙光强, 主要从事农田土壤碳氮循环和土壤微生物的研究。E-mail: ynaulong2316@163.com

  • 中图分类号: S153.6

Promoting effect of potato intercropping on functional diversity of soil microbial metabolism and nitrogen regulation

Funds: This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41967004) and Young and Middle-aged Reserve Talents Project of Yunnan Province (2017HB027)
More Information
  • 摘要: 间作是高效利用时间和空间资源的作物种植模式, 是最典型的农业多样性种植模式之一。然而, 地上作物多样性如何影响地下微生物多样性及其氮调控作用尚不清楚。因此, 本研究采用Biolog-Eco微平板法, 在多年田间小区定位试验的第7年, 分析4个氮水平(N0: 0 kg∙hm−2; N1: 62.5 kg∙hm−2; N2: 125 kg∙hm−2; N3: 187.5 kg∙hm−2)下, 马铃薯单作和玉米||马铃薯间作土壤中微生物的功能多样性。结果表明, 与N0相比, 施氮(N1, N2和N3)提高了微生物群落的AWCD值、Simpson指数和Shannon指数, 其中N1处理最高。与相同施氮量的马铃薯单作相比, 玉米马铃薯间作土壤微生物的AWCD值、Simpson指数和Shannon指数更高, 但仅在N0时存在显著差异(P<0.05)。另外, 施氮显著影响了6类碳源的代谢活性(P<0.05)。在马铃薯单作种植土壤中, 施氮提高了微生物对除碳水化合物外所有碳源的代谢能力; 玉米马铃薯间作土壤中, 施氮提高了微生物对聚合物、酚类和胺类化合物(惰性碳源)的代谢能力, 但降低了对碳水化合物、羧酸和氨基酸(活性碳源)的代谢能力。Mantel分析表明, 土壤温度、含水量、土壤有机碳、铵态氮含量和马铃薯生物量是影响微生物碳源代谢活性和功能多样性的主要影响因子, 但铵态氮仅在玉米马铃薯间作土壤中有显著影响(P<0.05)。网络分析表明, 马铃薯单作(0.930)土壤微生物碳源代谢活性的平均聚类系数略高于间作(0.907), 表明马铃薯与玉米间作削弱了土壤微生物群落代谢过程的稳定性。结果表明地上作物多样性种植提高了地下微生物的代谢功能多样性, 且这种互作关系受施氮的显著调控。
  • 图  1  不同施氮水平下单作(MP)和间作(IP)马铃薯的产量、根系生物量和总生物量

    不同小写字母表示同一种植模式下不同氮水平间差异显著(P<0.05), *表示相同氮水平下两种种植模式差异显著(P<0.05)。N0、N1、N2和N3分别表示马铃薯种植土壤中施氮量为0 kg∙hm−2、62.5 kg∙hm−2、125 kg∙hm−2和187.5 kg∙hm−2.

    Figure  1.  Yield, root biomass and total biomass of mono- (MP) and inter-cropped (IP) potato under different nitrogen application levels

    Different lowercase letters indicate significant differences among different nitrogen levels for the same cropping pattern at P<0.05. * means significant difference between two cropping patterns under the same nitrogen level at P<0.05 level. N application rates of N0, N1, N2, and N3 are 0, 62.5, 125 and 187.5 kg∙hm−2 in potato planted soil, respectively.

    图  2  不同氮水平下单作(MP)和间作(IP)马铃薯种植土壤微生物代谢活性(AWCD值)的动态变化

    N0、N1、N2和N3分别表示马铃薯种植土壤的施氮量为0 kg∙hm−2、62.5 kg∙hm−2、125 kg∙hm−2和187.5 kg∙hm−2.

    Figure  2.  Dynamic changes of metabolic activity (AWCD values) in mono- (MP) and inter-cropped (IP) potato soils under different nitrogen application levels

    N application rates of N0, N1, N2, and N3 are 0, 62.5, 125 and 187.5 kg∙hm−2 in potato planted soil, respectively.

    图  3  不同氮水平下单作(MP)和间作(IP)马铃薯土壤的AWCD值和微生物多功能性指数

    不同小写字母表示同一种植模式下不同氮水平间在P<0.05水平差异显著; *表示相同氮水平的不同种植模式在P<0.05水平差异显著。N0、N1、N2和N3分别表示马铃薯种植土壤的施氮量为0 kg∙hm−2、62.5 kg∙hm−2、125 kg∙hm−2和187.5 kg∙hm−2. Different lowercase letters mean significant differences among different nitrogen levels at the same cropping pattern at P<0.05 level. * means significant difference between two cropping patterns at P<0.05 level under the same nitrogen level. N application rates of N0, N1, N2, and N3 are 0, 62.5, 125 and 187.5 kg∙hm−2 in potato planted soil, respectively.

    Figure  3.  AWCD values and indexes of soil microbial functional diversity in mono- (MP) and inter-cropped (IP) potato soils under different nitrogen application levels

    图  4  不同氮水平下单作(MP)和间作(IP)马铃薯土壤中6类碳源AWCD值变化的热图

    CH: 碳水化合物; AA: 氨基酸; CA: 羧酸; PM: 聚合物; AM: 胺类; PA: 酚类化合物。不同小写字母表示同一种植模式下不同氮水平间在P<0.05水平差异显著。*和**表示同一氮水平下不同种植模式之间分别在P<0.05和P<0.01水平差异显著。N0、N1、N2和N3分别表示马铃薯种植土壤施氮量为0 kg∙hm−2、62.5 kg∙hm−2、125 kg∙hm−2和187.5 kg∙hm−2.

    Figure  4.  Heat map of AWCD values of varied carbon sources in mono- (MP) and inter-cropped (IP) potato soils under different nitrogen application levels

    CH: carbohydrates; AA: amino acids; CA: carboxylic acids; PM: polymers; AM: amines; PA: phenolic compounds. The lowercase letters (a, b, c) indicate significant differences among different nitrogen levels under the same cropping patterns at P<0.05 level. * and ** indicate significant differences between two cropping patterns under the same nitrogen level at P<0.05 and P<0.01 levels, respectively. N application rates of N0, N1, N2, and N3 are 0, 62.5, 125 and 187.5 kg∙hm−2 in potato planted soil, respectively.

    图  5  不同氮水平下单作(MP)和间作(IP)马铃薯土壤中不同碳源的主成分分析

    CH: 碳水化合物; AA: 氨基酸; CA: 羧酸; PM: 聚合物; AM: 胺类; PA: 酚类化合物。***表示极显著影响(P<0.001)。N0、N1、N2和N3分别表示马铃薯种植土壤施氮量为0 kg∙hm−2、62.5 kg∙hm−2、125 kg∙hm−2和187.5 kg∙hm−2。CH: carbohydrates; AA: amino acids; CA: carboxylic acids; PM: polymers; AM: amines; PA: phenolic compounds. *** indicate significantly influence at P<0.001 level. N application rates of N0, N1, N2, and N3 are 0, 62.5, 125 and 187.5 kg∙hm−2 in potato planted soil, respectively.

    Figure  5.  Principal component analysis (PCA) of varied carbon sources in mono- (MP) and inter-cropped (IP) potato soils under different nitrogen application levels

    图  6  不同氮水平下单作(MP)和间作(IP)马铃薯土壤中6类碳源利用的相对比例

    CH: 碳水化合物; AA: 氨基酸; CA: 羧酸; PM: 聚合物; AM: 胺类; PA: 酚类化合物。N0、N1、N2和N3分别表示马铃薯种植土壤施氮量为0 kg∙hm−2、62.5 kg∙hm−2、125 kg∙hm−2和187.5 kg∙hm−2. CH: carbohydrates; AA: amino acids; CA: carboxylic acids; PM: polymers; AM: amines; PA: phenolic compounds. N application rates of N0, N1, N2, and N3 are 0, 62.5, 125 and 187.5 kg∙hm−2 in potato planted soil, respectively.

    Figure  6.  Relative proportions of six carbon sources utilization in mono- (MP) and inter-cropped (IP) potato soils under different nitrogen application levels

    图  7  单作(MP)和间作(IP)马铃薯土壤微生物的AWCD值和功能多样性性指数(Simpson和Shannon指数)与土壤环境因子和马铃薯生物量的关系

    连线的宽度对应Mantel检验的r值, 连线的颜色表示统计学上的显著性; 环境因子之间的皮尔逊相关系数用不同颜色梯度表示。SOC: 土壤有机碳; AN: 铵态氮; NN: 硝态氮; TN: 全氮; ST: 土壤温度; SWC: 土壤含水量; RB: 根系生物量; TB: 总生物量。

    Figure  7.  Relationships between the microbial AWCD value and functional diversity indexes (Simpson and Shannon indexes) with soil environmental factors and potato biomass in mono- (MP) and inter-cropped (IP) potato soils

    Edge width corresponds to the Mantel’s r value, and the edge colour denotes the statistical significance. Pearson correlations of environmental factors are shown with a colour gradient denoting Pearson’s correlation coefficients. SOC: soil organic carbon; AN: ammonium nitrogen; NN: nitrate nitrogen; TN: total nitrogen; ST: soil temperature; SWC: soil water content; RB: root biomass; TB: total biomass.

    图  8  马铃薯单作(MP)和间作(IP)种植土壤中主要环境因子与不同碳源的相关性网络

    连线表示两个变量之间的显著相关性(P<0.05)。每个节点的大小与连接的数量呈正相关, 并且两个节点之间的每个连接的宽度与Pearson相关系数呈正相关。ACC: 平均聚类系数; CH: 碳水化合物; AA: 氨基酸; CA: 羧酸; PM: 聚合物; AM: 胺类; PA: 酚类化合物; SOC: 土壤有机碳; ST: 土壤温度; SWC: 土壤含水量; AN: 土壤铵态氮。

    Figure  8.  Correlation networks between major environmental factors and varied carbon groups in mono- (MP) and inter-cropped (IP) potato soils

    A connection stands for a significant (P<0.05) correlation between two variables. The size of each node is proportional to the number of connections, and the thickness of each connection between two nodes is proportional to the Pearson correlation coefficients. ACC: average clustering coefficients. CH: carbohydrates; AA: amino acids; CA: carboxylic acids; PM: polymers; AM: amines; PA: phenolic compounds; SOC: soil organic carbon; ST: soil temperature; SWC: soil water content; AN: ammonium nitrogen.

    表  1  不同氮水平下马铃薯单作(MP)和间作(IP)土壤的理化性状

    Table  1.   Soil physicochemical properties of mono- (MP) and inter-cropped (IP) potato under different nitrogen application levels

    种植模式
    Cropping pattern
    氮水平
    Nitrogen level
    土壤有机碳
    Soil organic carbon
    (g∙kg−1)
    硝态氮
    Nitrate nitrogen
    (mg∙kg−1)
    铵态氮
    Ammonium nitrogen
    (mg∙kg−1)
    pH土壤温度
    Soil temperature
    (℃)
    土壤含水量
    Soil water content
    (%)
    MPN09.87±0.33c9.05±0.82c1.25±0.50c6.48±0.17a20.95±1.25c22.05±2.02b
    N112.25±0.54a13.15±0.40a4.25±0.32a6.96±0.15a24.35±1.03a25.03±1.07a
    N211.02±0.69b12.02±0.92b3.85±0.13b6.66±0.20a22.35±1.05b22.32±1.32b
    N310.51±0.76b11.34±0.65b2.87±0.16b6.71±0.08a22.08±0.93b22.07±1.06b
    IPN010.93±0.36c*9.98±0.55b1.45±0.10c6.47±0.13a21.07±0.87b23.65±0.26b*
    N113.10±0.72a12.01±0.58a4.58±1.03a6.60±0.20a23.05±0.62a25.01±1.03a
    N212.05±0.52b11.25±0.60a4.05±0.95a6.39±0.16a21.85±1.23ab24.06±0.96ab
    N311.02±1.10c10.56±1.03ab3.57±0.32ab6.55±0.23a21.65±2.01ab23.97±0.53b
      不同小写字母表示同一种植模式下的不同氮水平存在显著差异(P<0.05); *表示相同氮水平下不同种植模式存在显著差异(P<0.05)。N0、N1、N2和N3分别表示马铃薯种植土壤的施氮量为0 kg∙hm−2、62.5 kg∙hm−2、125 kg∙hm−2和187.5 kg∙hm−2. Different lowercase letters mean significant differences among different nitrogen levels at the same cropping pattern at P<0.05. * means significant difference between two cropping patterns under the same nitrogen level at P<0.05. N application rates of N0, N1, N2, and N3 are 0, 62.5, 125 and 187.5 kg∙hm−2 in potato planted soil, respectively.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  不同氮水平下马铃薯单作和间作种植土壤微生物AWCD值和多样性指数的多因素方差分析

    Table  2.   Multivariate analysis on AWCD value and diversity indexes of soil microorganism in potato mono- and inter-cropping system under different nitrogen application levels

    影响因子 Impact factorAWCDSimpsonShannon
    氮水平 Nitrogen level (N)********
    种植模式 Cropping pattern (C)******
    N × CNSNSNS
    NS: 无显著性差异; ***: P<0.001; **: P<0.01; *: P<0.05; NS: no significant.
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2021-09-05
  • 录用日期:  2021-12-10
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-01-19
  • 刊出日期:  2022-07-05

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