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直灌咸水与施氮磷对重盐碱柽柳地的改良效应

杨莉琳 杨友山 李铃蔓 邱发根 朱向梅

杨莉琳, 杨友山, 李铃蔓, 邱发根, 朱向梅. 直灌咸水与施氮磷对重盐碱柽柳地的改良效应[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2022, 30(8): 1372−1380 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210669
引用本文: 杨莉琳, 杨友山, 李铃蔓, 邱发根, 朱向梅. 直灌咸水与施氮磷对重盐碱柽柳地的改良效应[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2022, 30(8): 1372−1380 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210669
YANG L L, YANG Y S, LI L M, QIU F G, ZHU X M. Effects of direct saline irrigation and nitrogen and phosphorus application on a coastal saline-alkali soil planted Tamarix chinensis[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2022, 30(8): 1372−1380 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210669
Citation: YANG L L, YANG Y S, LI L M, QIU F G, ZHU X M. Effects of direct saline irrigation and nitrogen and phosphorus application on a coastal saline-alkali soil planted Tamarix chinensis[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2022, 30(8): 1372−1380 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210669

直灌咸水与施氮磷对重盐碱柽柳地的改良效应

doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210669
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金项目(31270521)、贵州省教育厅创新群体重大研究项目(黔教合KY字[2016]053号)、贵州省科技计划项目(黔科合基础[2019]1312)、铜仁学院博士基金项目(trxyDH1525)和农业生态创新团队项目(CXTD[2020-10])以及2019贵州省一流本科专业建设(教高厅函[2019]46号)资助
详细信息
    通讯作者:

    杨莉琳, 主要研究方向为土壤养分循环与环境生态。E-mail: yangllin@sjziam.ac.cn

  • 中图分类号: S153; S147.2; Q945.78

Effects of direct saline irrigation and nitrogen and phosphorus application on a coastal saline-alkali soil planted Tamarix chinensis

Funds: This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31270521), the Major Research Project of Innovation Group of Guizhou Education Department (Qian Education No. [2016] 053), the Science and Technology Plan Project of Guizhou Province (Qian Science No. [2019] 1312), the Doctoral Fund Project of Tongren University (trxyDH1525), the Agro-ecological Innovation Research Group of Tongren University (CXTD[2020-10]), and the 2019 Classic Undergraduate Course Construction in Guizhou Province (Advanced Education Department Document [2019] No. 46).
More Information
  • 摘要: 为解决滨海重盐碱地春旱、返盐以及缺N、贫P的突出问题, 利用当地丰富的地下咸水资源和柽柳固C、排盐的特性, 在华北低平原区滨海重盐碱区人工柽柳地开展了为期4年的咸水[不灌水和灌溉地下咸水(含盐量8.02~9.34 g·L−1, W)]与NP [不施肥(CK、WCK), 单施氮(N、WN)和施氮磷(NP、WNP)]的2因素定位试验, 研究不同处理对土壤盐分、养分和微生物量碳和微生物量氮的影响, 以达到生物改良盐碱地、提升绿色生态景观的目标。研究结果显示, 柽柳地首次灌溉咸水, 0~30 cm土壤盐分平均下降32.7%; 但连续3年灌溉咸水柽柳地0~30 cm土层盐分平均上升11.2%~18.3%; 0~90 cm土壤有效磷(Olsen-P)含量下降19.4%~32.1%, 0~30 cm 微生物量碳与微生物量氮含量显著下降。灌溉咸水条件下施用NP (WNP)比对照(WCK)的0~30 cm土层的含盐量下降36.1%, 土壤0~30 cm全氮、含水量和30~60 cm的Olsen-P含量均显著下降; 而0~30 cm土层有机质、微生物量碳和有效钾含量显著提升。P是滨海重盐碱地关键限制性营养元素, 灌溉咸水促进了柽柳对P吸收, 进一步加剧土壤P消耗; 灌溉咸水并施NP (WNP)可缓解滨海重盐碱柽柳地营养元素匮乏的限制, 激活土壤微生物活性, 有效降低因连续直灌咸水引发的土壤次生盐渍化的风险。研究结果为重盐碱地人工柽柳咸水灌溉及养分管理提供依据。
  • 图  1  灌溉咸水与施NP对柽柳地不同深度土壤有效磷含量的影响

    CK: 不灌咸水不施肥; N: 不灌咸水施N; NP: 不灌咸水施NP; WCK: 灌咸水不施肥; WN: 灌咸水施N; WNP: 灌咸水施NP。括号左边的*表示灌溉咸水与不灌咸水组间的差异, 括号内的不同符号或字母表示不同施肥处理间的差异, 括号右边的*表示咸水×施肥的交互作用; *和**分别表示在P<0.05和P<0.01水平差异显著; ns表示差异不显著。

    Figure  1.  Impact f saline water irrigation-associated fertilization of N and P on soil Olsen-P content in different depths of Tamarix chinensis field

    CK: neither irrigation nor fertilization; N: N fertilization without irrigation; NP: N and P fertilization without irrigation; WCK: no fertilization with irrigation of saline water; WN: N fertilization with irrigation of saline water; WNP: N and P fertilization with irrigation of saline water. * outside left the parentheses indicates difference between the average of two irrigation treatments (i.e. without irrigation or with saline irrigation) for a particular soil depth; different symbol or letters inside the parentheses indicate differences among average of fertilization treatments for a particular soil depth; * outside right the parentheses indicate interaction of the irrigation and fertilization for a particular soil depth. * and ** indicate significant differences at P<0.05 and P<0.01 levels, respectively; “ns” indicates no significant difference.

    表  1  试验地土壤基本理化性状

    Table  1.   Basic physical and chemical properties of soil for planting Tamarix chinensis

    土层
    Soil layer
    (cm)
    pH电导率
    Electric conductivity
    (dS∙m−1)
    含盐量
    Salt content
    (g∙kg−1)
    有机质
    Organic matter
    (g∙kg−1)
    全氮
    Total N
    (g∙kg−1)
    硝态氮
    NO3-N
    (mg∙kg−1)
    有效磷
    Olsen-P
    (mg∙kg−1)
    有效钾
    Available K
    (mg∙kg−1)
    0~308.131.665.008.130.664.08 7.00186.8
    30~608.081.725.298.140.563.44 6.91164.7
    60~908.011.966.008.210.600.2612.70227.6
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  灌溉咸水与施NP对柽柳地不同深度土壤盐分含量的影响

    Table  2.   Impact of saline irrigation-associated fertilization of N and P on salt contents of different soil depths of Tamarix chinensis field

    处理
    Treatment
    第1年7月 July of the first year第3年4月 April of the third year第4年6月 June of the forth year
    0~30 cm30~60 cm60~90 cm0~30 cm30~60 cm60~90 cm0~30 cm30~60 cm60~90 cm
    g∙kg−1 
    CK5.0±0.15.4±0.65.4±0.54.1±0.45.0±0.15.7±0.14.3±0.24.5±0.65.6±0.3
    N5.5±0.44.7±1.15.5±1.14.2±0.25.0±0.26.1±0.34.2±0.75.1±0.35.3±0.5
    NP4.8±2.03.4±1.03.8±0.74.3±0.14.8±0.25.5±0.34.6±0.24.5±0.26.5±0.7
    WCK3.5±0.54.1±0.24.9±0.45.1±0.15.8±0.2a5.9±0.2a6.1±0.8a5.1±0.85.0±0.2
    WN3.3±0.54.0±0.74.4±0.64.5±0.35.1±0.1b5.8±0.4ab5.5±0.2ab4.4±0.24.8±0.4
    WNP3.5±1.03.7±0.84.3±0.64.4±0.45.4±0.1ab5.7±0.4b3.9±0.4b4.8±0.35.2±0.4
    差异来源分析 Analysis of variance
    W*nsns**ns*nsns
    Fnsnsnsnsnsns*nsns
    W×Fnsnsns***ns*nsns
      CK: 不灌咸水不施肥; N: 不灌咸水施N; NP: 不灌咸水施NP; WCK: 灌咸水不施肥; WN: 灌咸水施N; WNP: 灌咸水施NP; W: 灌水处理; F: 施肥处理; W×F: 咸水与施肥的交互效应。同列2个水处理组内的不同施肥处理(CK, N, NP或WCK, WN, WNP)标注不同小写字母表示在P<0.05水平差异显著, 没有标注字母的表示差异不显著。*和**分别表示在P<0.05和P<0.01水平差异显著; ns表示差异不显著。CK: neither irrigation nor fertilization; N: N fertilization without irrigation; NP: N and P fertilization without irrigation; WCK: no fertilization with irrigation of saline water; WN: N fertilization with irrigation of saline water; WNP: N and P fertilization with irrigation of saline water; W: saline water irrigation; F: fertilization; W×F: interaction of saline water irrigation and fertilization. Different lowercase letters or no letters respectively indicate significant differences at P<0.05 level or no difference among treatments of fertilization without irrigation (i.e. CK, N and NP) or with saline irrigation (i.e. WCK, WN and WNP). * and ** indicate significant differences at P<0.05 and P<0.01 levels, respectively; “ns” indicates no significant difference.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  灌溉咸水与施NP对柽柳地不同深度土壤微生物量碳氮的影响

    Table  3.   Impact of saline irrigation-associated fertilization of N and P on soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen contents in different depths of Tamarix chinensis field

    处理
    Treatment
    微生物碳 Microbiol biomanss C (mg·kg−1)微生物氮 Microbiol biomass N (mg·kg−1)微生物量碳/微生物量氮 Microbiol biomass C/N
    0~30 cm30~60 cm60~90 cm0~30 cm30~60 cm60~90 cm0~30 cm30~60 cm60~90 cm
    CK268.9±23.2b235.2±22.2212.5±42.0102.7±9.0b55.0±1.5b33.7±13.2c2.84.36.1
    N319.7±43.7a274.9±52.9175.3±32.7104.3±2.7b69.3±6.4ab52.7±9.4b3.03.73.6
    NP326.9±6.9a298.6±9.7245.9±6.1135.7±2.7a73.0±10.6a81.7±7.4a2.34.13.0
    WCK223.0±16.1b214.7±39.2227.2±20.9a87.3±5.851.0±3.2b23.3±2.7c2.65.09.7
    WN254.4±9.2ab251.9±5.4164.0±20.6b90.0±3.671.0±4.0a50.3±8.1b2.83.03.3
    WNP296.6±10.5a245.2±46.5236.8±8.1a97.0±4.676.0±3.8a83.0±2.1a3.13.22.9
    差异来源分析 Analysis of variance
    W**nsns*nsns
    F**ns*******
    W×F**nsns*****
      CK: 不灌咸水不施肥; N: 不灌咸水施N; NP: 不灌咸水施NP; WCK: 灌咸水不施肥; WN: 灌咸水施N; WNP: 灌咸水施NP; W: 灌水处理; F: 施肥处理; W×F: 咸水与施肥的交互效应。同列2个水处理组内的不同施肥处理(CK, N, NP或WCK, WN, WNP)标注不同小写字母表示在P<0.05水平差异显著, 没有标注字母的表示差异不显著。*和**分别表示在P<0.05和P<0.01水平差异显著; ns表示差异不显著。CK: neither irrigation nor fertilization; N: N fertilization without irrigation; NP: N and P fertilization without irrigation; WCK: no fertilization with irrigation of saline water; WN: N fertilization with irrigation of saline water; WNP: N and P fertilization with irrigation of saline water; W: saline water irrigation; F: fertilization; W×F: interaction of saline water irrigation and fertilization. Different lowercase letters or no letters respectively indicate significant differences at P<0.05 level or no difference among treatments of fertilization without irrigation (i.e. CK, N and NP) or with saline irrigation (i.e. WCK, WN and WNP). * and ** indicate significant differences at P<0.05 and P<0.01 levels, respectively; “ns” indicates no significant difference.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  灌溉咸水与施NP对柽柳地不同深度土壤全氮、硝态氮和土壤水含量的影响

    Table  4.   Impact of saline water irrigation-associated fertilization of N and P on contents of total N, nitrate N and water in different soil depths of Tamarix chinensis field

    处理
    Treatment
    全氮 Total N (g·kg−1)硝态氮 NO3-N (mg·kg−1)含水量 Soil moisture (%)
    0~30 cm30~60 cm60~90 cm0~30 cm30~60 cm60~90 cm0~30 cm30~60 cm60~90 cm
    CK 0.85±0.01 0.78±0.01 1.06±0.04a 3.22±0.05B 2.58±0.03b 2.52±0.01 17.7±1.56b 20.5±1.4 22.1±0.2
    N 0.72±0.01 0.78±0.08 0.96±0.09ab 9.43±0.08A 5.23±0.01a 2.69±0.01 21.3±0.49a 22.4±0.6 22.4±0.2
    NP 0.74±0.06 0.78±0.05 0.79±0.06b 6.34±0.04AB 5.41±0.04a 2.71±0.02 19.3±0.11ab 20.5±0.1 22.2±0.1
    WCK 0.77±0.05AB 0.81±0.02 0.98±0.04a 1.57±0.01B 2.66±0.01b 2.34±0.01b 20.9±0.66a 21.1±0.3 22.5±0.1a
    WN 0.83±0.08A 0.79±0.07 0.79±0.10b 4.21±0.06AB 5.93±0.03a 3.74±0.01a 18.3±0.36b 20.2±0.3 21.3±0.2b
    WNP 0.61±0.03B 0.73±0.07 0.84±0.03ab 5.93±0.02A 5.48±0.04a 3.44±0.02a 18.4±0.69b 21.3±0.8 22.0±0.3a
    差异来源分析 Analysis of variance
    W ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns
    F * ns * ** ** * ** ns ns
    W×F * ns * * * ns * ns ns
      CK: 不灌咸水不施肥; N: 不灌咸水施N; NP: 不灌咸水施NP; WCK: 灌咸水不施肥; WN: 灌咸水施N; WNP: 灌咸水施NP; W: 灌水处理; F: 施肥处理; W×F: 咸水与施肥的交互效应。同列2个水处理组内的不同施肥处理(CK, N, NP或WCK, WN, WNP)标注不同小写或大写字母分别表示在P<0.05或P<0.01水平差异显著, 没有标注字母的表示差异不显著。*和** 分别表示在P<0.05和P<0.01水平差异显著; ns表示差异不显著。CK: neither irrigation nor fertilization; N: N fertilization without irrigation; NP: N and P fertilization without irrigation; WCK: no fertilization with irrigation of saline water; WN: N fertilization with irrigation of saline water; WNP: N and P fertilization with irrigation of saline water; W: saline water irriggation; F: fertilization; W×F: interaction of saline water irrigation and fertilization. Different lowercase or capital letters indicate significant differences at P<0.05 or P<0.01 level among fertilizer treatments without irrigation (i.e. CK, N and NP) or with saline irrigation (i.e. WCK, WN and WNP), and no letter indicate no difference. * and ** indicate significant differences at P<0.05 and P<0.01 levels, respectively; “ns” indicates no significant difference.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  灌溉咸水与施NP对柽柳地不同深度土壤有效钾和有机质含量的影响

    Table  5.   Impact of saline water irrigation-associated fertilization of N and P on available K and organic matter contents in different soil depths of Tamarix chinensis field

    处理
    Treatment
    有效钾 Available K (mg∙kg−1)有机质 Organic matter (g∙kg−1)
    0~30 cm30~60 cm60~90 cm0~30 cm30~60 cm60~90 cm
    CK171.4±13.11ab205.1±7.83A237.1±8.248.8±0.918.0±0.1610.5±0.92
    N163.6±6.08b155.0±18.78B231.7±14.008.6±0.278.0±1.2610.1±1.60
    NP190.6±14.98a183.7±15.82AB250.7±13.329.7±1.058.5±0.2210.0±1.90
    WCK175.5±2.45B185.9±2.11 a267.0±32.258.5±0.94B10.0±0.39ab11.8±0.42
    WN173.0±8.45B152.3±4.99b251.9±18.8410.3±0.26AB11.7±1.14a12.3±0.96
    WNP269.8±21.6A179.5±9.2ab212.9±27.6412.3±1.0A8.9±0.51b11.3±0.75
    差异来源分析 Analysis of variance
    Wnsnsns*****
    F****ns**nsns
    W×Fns*ns***ns
      CK: 不灌咸水不施肥; N: 不灌咸水施N; NP: 不灌咸水施NP; WCK: 灌咸水不施肥; WN: 灌咸水施N; WNP: 灌咸水施NP; W: 灌水处理; F: 施肥处理; W×F: 咸水与施肥的交互效应。同列2个水处理组内的不同施肥处理(CK, N, NP或WCK, WN, WNP)标注不同小写字母或大写字母表示在P<0.05或P<0.01水平差异显著, 没有标注字母的表示差异不显著。*和**分别表示在P<0.05和P<0.01水平差异显著; ns表示差异不显著。CK: neither irrigation nor fertilization; N: N fertilization without irrigation; NP: N and P fertilization without irrigation; WCK: no fertilization with irrigation of saline water; WN: N fertilization with irrigation of saline water; WNP: N and P fertilization with irrigation of saline water; W: saline water irriggation; F: fertilization; W×F: interaction of saline water irrigation and fertilization. Different lowercase or capital letters indicate significant differences at P<0.05 or P<0.01 level among treatments of fertilization without irrigation (i.e. CK, N and NP) or with saline irrigation (i.e. WCK, WN and WNP), and no letter indicates no difference. * and ** indicate significant differences at P<0.05 and P<0.01 levels, respectively; “ns” indicates no significant difference.
    下载: 导出CSV
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