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洞庭湖区稻田主要种植模式物质生产及光温资源利用效率的比较

赵杨 高杜娟 李超 陈友德 崔婷 童中权 罗先富

赵杨, 高杜娟, 李超, 陈友德, 崔婷, 童中权, 罗先富. 洞庭湖区稻田主要种植模式物质生产及光温资源利用效率的比较[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2022, 30(8): 1309−1317 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210698
引用本文: 赵杨, 高杜娟, 李超, 陈友德, 崔婷, 童中权, 罗先富. 洞庭湖区稻田主要种植模式物质生产及光温资源利用效率的比较[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2022, 30(8): 1309−1317 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210698
ZHAO Y, GAO D J, LI C, CHEN Y D, CUI T, TONG Z Q, LUO X F. Comparison of matter production and the light and temperature resources utilization efficiencies of the main cropping systems for paddy fields in the Dongting Lake region[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2022, 30(8): 1309−1317 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210698
Citation: ZHAO Y, GAO D J, LI C, CHEN Y D, CUI T, TONG Z Q, LUO X F. Comparison of matter production and the light and temperature resources utilization efficiencies of the main cropping systems for paddy fields in the Dongting Lake region[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2022, 30(8): 1309−1317 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210698

洞庭湖区稻田主要种植模式物质生产及光温资源利用效率的比较

doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210698
基金项目: 农业部“十三五”国家重点研发计划(2016YFD0300207-05)资助
详细信息
    作者简介:

    赵杨, 主要研究方向为水稻高产高效栽培技术。E-mail: zhaoyang6560@126.com

    通讯作者:

    罗先富, 主要研究方向为水稻高产高效栽培技术。E-mail: 1153677355@qq.com

  • 中图分类号: S318

Comparison of matter production and the light and temperature resources utilization efficiencies of the main cropping systems for paddy fields in the Dongting Lake region

Funds: This study was supported by the National Key Research and Development Project of China (2016YFD0300207-05).
More Information
  • 摘要: 合理的种植模式可实现作物生长需求和自然资源供给的匹配。比较研究洞庭湖区稻田主要种植模式, 可明确该区域优势种植模式, 为优化湖区资源配置和建立丰产高效种植模式提供理论依据。2016—2018年, 选取4种湖区稻田主要种植模式为研究对象, 分析不同模式的干物质生产效率和干物质产能、光温资源利用效率以及经济效益。4种模式中, 冬闲-中稻一熟制模式周年平均干物质生产效率和干物质产能、有效积温和光能分配率最低, 分别为18 330 kg∙hm−2和27.00 MJ∙m−2、70.0%和49.2%, 表明湖区冬闲-中稻一熟制模式光温资源利用不充分。而油菜-早稻-晚稻三熟制模式周年平均干物质生产效率和干物质产能最高, 分别为31 525 kg∙hm−2和48.22 MJ∙m−2, 但周年平均生育期为364.5 d, 2016—2017年周年有效积温和光能分配率分别达到102.5%和102.6%, 表明部分年份油菜-早稻-晚稻三熟制光温资源欠缺, 难以满足3季作物需求, 且三熟制经济效益最低, 两周年平均为8738元∙hm−2。冬闲-早稻-晚稻两熟制模式生长季集中于4月上旬至10月中下旬, 冬季温光资源浪费, 且周年经济效益平均为9009元∙hm−2, 仅为冬闲-中稻模式的75.3%, 油菜-中稻模式的62.3%。油菜-中稻两熟制模式全年时间平均利用率88.9%, 周年平均有效积温和光能分配率为86.6%和87.7%, 光温资源充足且利用率高, 周年经济效益最高, 为14 468元∙hm−2, 明显高于其他3种模式。油菜-中稻两熟制模式与其他3种模式综合比较, 可充分利用全年光温资源, 干物质生产效率和产能较高, 也是经济效益最高的种植模式, 适宜在洞庭湖区发展。
  • 表  1  不同种植模式生育期天数及播种期和收获期

    Table  1.   Growth period and date of sowing and harvest of different cropping systems

    年份
    Year
    种植模式
    Cropping
    system
    播种期-收获期(月/日)
    Date of sowing and harvest (month/day)
    生育期天数
    Growth period (d)
    第1季
    1st season
    第2季
    2nd season
    第3季
    3rd season
    第1季
    1st season
    第2季
    2nd season
    第3季
    3rd season
    周年
    Whole
    year
    重叠期
    Overlapping
    period
    2016—2017 IR 05/25—10/18 146 146 0
    OR 10/09—04/27 05/25—10/09 200 137 337 0
    ORR 10/09—04/27 04/10—07/15 06/20—10/21 200 96 123 377 42
    IRR 04/01—07/15 06/20—10/21 106 123 203 25
    2017—2018 IR 05/24—10/02 131 131 0
    OR 10/29—05/01 05/24—09/29 184 128 312 0
    ORR 10/29—05/01 04/10—07/12 06/19-10/16 184 93 119 352 44
    IRR 04/01—07/13 06/19—10/16 103 119 198 24
      IR: 冬闲-中稻; OR: 油菜-中稻; ORR: 油菜-早稻-晚稻; IRR: 冬闲-早稻-晚稻。重叠期指两季作物同时生长的时间。IR: winter fallow-middle rice; OR: oilseed rape-middle rice; ORR: oilseed rape-early rice-late rice; IRR: winter fallow-early rice-late rice. Overlapping period is the time of two crops growing at the same time.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  不同种植模式的周年干物质生产效率

    Table  2.   Efficiency of dry matter production in different cropping systems kg∙hm−2 

    年份
    Year
    种植模式
    Cropping system
    第1季 1st season第2季 2nd season第3季 3rd season周年 Whole year
    茎秆
    Stalk
    籽粒
    Seed
    全株
    Whole plant
    茎秆
    Stalk
    籽粒
    Seed
    全株
    Whole plant
    茎秆
    Stalk
    籽粒
    Seed
    全株
    Whole plant
    茎秆
    Stalk
    籽粒
    Seed
    全株
    Whole plant
    2016—2017 IR 9452 8345 17 797 9452 8345 17 797d
    OR 5334 1880 7214 6596 8123 14 719 11 930 10 003 21 933c
    ORR 5313 1909 7221 5776 6030 11 806 5741 5623 11 364 16 830 13 562 30 391a
    IRR 7961 6336 14 297 5571 6089 11 660 13 532 12 425 25 957b
    2017—2018 IR 9542 9321 18 863 9542 9321 18 863c
    OR 6622 1617 8239 8648 9538 18 186 15 270 11 155 26 425b
    ORR 6218 1679 7897 5506 5503 11 009 7099 6653 13 752 18 823 13 835 32 658a
    IRR 5931 6767 12 698 7158 6503 13 661 13 089 13 270 26 359b
      IR: 冬闲-中稻; OR: 油菜-中稻; ORR: 油菜-早稻-晚稻; IRR: 冬闲-早稻-晚稻。同一年份数据后不同小写字母表示不同模式间差异显著(P<0.05)。IR: winter fallow-middle rice; OR: oilseed rape-middle rice; ORR: oilseed rape-early rice-late rice; IRR: winter fallow-early rice-late rice. Values followed by different small letters in the same year are significantly different at P<0.05 level.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  不同种植模式的干物质产能

    Table  3.   Energy of dry matter production in different cropping systems

    年份
    Year
    种植模式
    Cropping system
    第1季 1st season 第2季 2nd season 第3季 3rd season 周年 Whole year
    茎秆
    Stalk
    籽粒
    Seed
    全株
    Whole plant
    茎秆
    Stalk
    籽粒
    Seed
    全株
    Whole plant
    茎秆
    Stalk
    籽粒
    Seed
    全株
    Whole plant
    茎秆
    Stalk
    籽粒
    Seed
    全株
    Whole plant
    ×104 MJ∙hm−2 
    2016—2017 IR 13.27 12.91 26.18 13.27 12.91 26.18d
    OR 7.54 4.95 12.49 9.26 12.57 21.83 16.80 17.52 34.31c
    ORR 7.51 5.03 12.53 8.11 9.33 17.44 8.06 8.70 16.76 23.68 23.05 46.73a
    IRR 11.18 9.80 20.98 7.82 9.42 17.24 19.00 19.22 38.22b
    2017—2018 IR 13.40 14.42 27.82 13.40 14.42 27.82c
    OR 9.36 4.26 13.62 12.14 14.76 26.90 21.50 19.01 40.51b
    ORR 8.79 4.42 13.21 7.73 8.51 16.24 9.97 10.29 20.26 26.48 23.23 49.71a
    IRR 8.33 10.47 18.80 10.05 10.06 20.11 18.38 20.53 38.91b
      IR: 冬闲-中稻; OR: 油菜-中稻; ORR: 油菜-早稻-晚稻; IRR: 冬闲-早稻-晚稻。同一年份数据后不同小写字母表示不同模式间差异显著(P<0.05)。IR: winter fallow-middle rice; OR: oilseed rape-middle rice; ORR: oilseed rape-early rice-late rice; IRR: winter fallow-early rice-late rice. Values followed by different small letters in the same year are significantly different at P<0.05 level.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  不同种植模式的有效积温分配与积温生产效率

    Table  4.   Distribution of effective accumulated temperature and production efficiency in different cropping systems

    年份
    Year
    种植模式
    Cropping
    system
    有效积温
    Effective accumulated
    temperature (℃)
    有效积温分配率
    Distribution ratio of effective
    accumulated temperature (%)
    积温生产效率
    Temperature production efficiency
    (kg∙hm−2∙℃−1)
    第1季
    1st season
    第2季
    2nd season
    第3季
    3rd season
    周年
    Whole year
    第1季
    1st season
    第2季
    2nd season
    第3季
    3rd season
    周年
    Whole year
    第1季
    1st season
    第2季
    2nd season
    第3季
    3rd season
    周年
    Whole year
    2016—2017 IR 2359 2359 72.4 72.4 7.54 7.54b
    OR 603 2312 2915 18.5 71.0 89.5 11.94 6.37 7.52b
    ORR 603 1347 1994 3339 18.5 41.3 61.2 102.5 11.96 8.77 5.70 9.10a
    IRR 1414 1994 2944 43.4 61.2 90.4 10.11 5.85 8.82a
    2017—2018 IR 2336 2336 67.6 67.6 8.07 8.07c
    OR 593 2297 2890 17.2 66.4 83.6 13.88 7.92 9.14ab
    ORR 593 1399 2054 3372 17.2 40.5 59.4 97.5 13.25 7.87 6.69 9.68a
    IRR 1491 2054 3087 43.1 59.4 89.3 8.52 6.65 8.54bc
      IR: 冬闲-中稻; OR: 油菜-中稻; ORR: 油菜-早稻-晚稻; IRR: 冬闲-早稻-晚稻。同一年份数据后不同小写字母表示不同模式间差异显著(P<0.05)。IR: winter fallow-middle rice; OR: oilseed rape-middle rice; ORR: oilseed rape-early rice-late rice; IRR: winter fallow-early rice-late rice. Values followed by different small letters in the same year are significantly different at P<0.05 level.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  不同种植模式的光能资源分配与光能利用

    Table  5.   Distribution of light resources and light energy use efficiency in different cropping systems

    年份
    Year
    种植模式
    Cropping
    system
    太阳总辐射
    Total solar radiation
    (MJ∙m−2)
    光能分配率
    Light energy distribution
    ratio (%)
    光能生产效率
    Light energy production efficiency
    (×10−3 kg∙MJ−2)
    第1季
    1st season
    第2季
    2nd season
    第3季
    3rd season
    周年
    Whole year
    第1季
    1st season
    第2季
    2nd season
    第3季
    3rd season
    周年
    Whole year
    第1季
    1st season
    第2季
    2nd season
    第3季
    3rd season
    周年
    Whole year
    2016—2017 IR 1997 1997 50.9 50.9 0.89 0.89a
    OR 1602 1927 3529 40.9 49.2 90.1 0.45 0.76 0.62c
    ORR 1602 1354 1599 4020 40.9 34.6 40.8 102.6 0.45 0.87 0.71 0.76b
    IRR 1455 1599 2763 37.1 40.8 70.5 0.98 0.73 0.94a
    2017—2018 IR 2058 2058 47.4 47.4 0.92 0.92a
    OR 1688 2014 3702 38.9 46.4 85.3 0.49 0.90 0.71b
    ORR 1688 1389 1807 4208 38.9 32.0 41.6 96.9 0.47 0.79 0.76 0.78b
    IRR 1533 1807 2929 35.3 41.6 67.5 0.83 0.76 0.90a
      IR: 冬闲-中稻; OR: 油菜-中稻; ORR: 油菜-早稻-晚稻; IRR: 冬闲-早稻-晚稻。同一年份数据后不同小写字母表示不同模式间差异显著(P<0.05)。IR: winter fallow-middle rice; OR: oilseed rape-middle rice; ORR: oilseed rape-early rice-late rice; IRR: winter fallow-early rice-late rice.Values followed by different small letters in the same year are significantly different at P<0.05 level.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  不同种植模式的经济效益比较

    Table  6.   Comparison of economic benefits of different cropping systems ¥∙hm–2 

    年份
    Year
    种植模式
    Cropping system
    产值和补贴
    Total income and subsidy
    成本
    Cost
    经济效益
    Net income
    第1季
    1st season
    第2季
    2nd season
    第3季
    3rd season
    周年
    Whole year
    第1季
    1st season
    第2季
    2nd season
    第3季
    3rd season
    周年
    Whole year
    第1季
    1st season
    第2季
    2nd season
    第3季
    3rd season
    周年
    Whole year
    2016—2017 IR 22 266 22 266 11 400 11 400 10 866 10 866
    OR 9500 21 739 31 239 7200 10 500 17 700 2300 11 239 13 539
    ORR 9700 15 516 15 738 40 954 7200 11 670 13 200 32 070 2500 3846 2538 8884
    IRR 16 198 16 866 33 064 11 670 13 200 24 870 4528 3666 8194
    2017—2018 IR 24 618 24 618 11 550 11 550 13 068 13 068
    OR 8250 25 146 33 396 7350 10 650 18 000 900 14 496 15 396
    ORR 8550 14 350 18 210 41 110 7350 11 820 13 350 32 520 1200 2530 4860 8590
    IRR 17 144 17 850 34 994 11 820 13 350 25 170 5324 4500 9824
      IR: 冬闲-中稻; OR: 油菜-中稻; ORR: 油菜-早稻-晚稻; IRR: 冬闲-早稻-晚稻。IR: winter fallow-middle rice; OR: oilseed rape-middle rice; ORR: oilseed rape-early rice-late rice; IRR: winter fallow-early rice-late rice.
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2021-10-20
  • 录用日期:  2022-02-24
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-03-18
  • 刊出日期:  2022-08-01

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