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不同土地经营模式的稻鱼共生系统环境影响评价

崔文超 焦雯珺 闵庆文

崔文超, 焦雯珺, 闵庆文. 不同土地经营模式的稻鱼共生系统环境影响评价[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2022, 30(4): 630−640 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210736
引用本文: 崔文超, 焦雯珺, 闵庆文. 不同土地经营模式的稻鱼共生系统环境影响评价[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2022, 30(4): 630−640 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210736
CUI W C, JIAO W J, MIN Q W. Environmental impact assessment of rice-fish culture with different land management models[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2022, 30(4): 630−640 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210736
Citation: CUI W C, JIAO W J, MIN Q W. Environmental impact assessment of rice-fish culture with different land management models[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2022, 30(4): 630−640 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210736

不同土地经营模式的稻鱼共生系统环境影响评价

doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210736
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金项目(41801204)资助
详细信息
    作者简介:

    崔文超, 主要从事环境影响评价、低碳绿色发展等领域的研究。E-mail: zgcuiwenchao@163.com

    通讯作者:

    焦雯珺, 主要从事生态系统管理、环境影响评估、区域可持续发展等领域的研究。E-mail: jiaowj@igsnrr.ac.cn

  • 中图分类号: F326.11; F326.4; X24

Environmental impact assessment of rice-fish culture with different land management models

Funds: The study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41801204).
More Information
  • 摘要: 农业碳排放是全球碳排放的重要组成部分, 研究农业碳排放对当下我国探索农业绿色转型发展具有重要意义, 而针对碳排放的环境影响评价则可为促进农业绿色转型发展提供重要参考。本研究以青田稻鱼共生系统为研究对象, 利用基于生命周期评价的碳足迹模型开展不同土地经营模式下的稻鱼共生系统环境影响评价。研究发现: 1)以发展梯田旅游为重点的经营模式虽然碳足迹仅为5779.1 kg(CO2-eq)∙hm−2, 在碳减排方面最具优势, 但其单位产值碳足迹却高达0.17 kg(CO2-eq)∙¥−1, 较低的经济效益并不利于长久的可持续发展; 2)以扩大田鱼养殖为重点的经营模式经济效益显著, 单位产值碳足迹仅为0.05 kg(CO2-eq)∙¥−1, 但较高的农资投入使得其碳足迹高达7928.6 kg(CO2-eq)∙hm−2, 面临着环境风险的增加, 必须找到经济产出与环境风险的平衡点; 3)在政府的政策与资金支持下, 以维持传统生产为重点的经营模式较好地践行了遗产保护理念, 稻鱼共生系统的碳足迹为6266.7 kg(CO2-eq)∙hm−2, 单位产值碳足迹为0.12 kg(CO2-eq)∙¥−1, 但从长远来看, 还需通过提升产品经济价值、促进农旅融合发展实现经济和环境效益的双赢。研究结果揭示了不同土地经营模式下稻鱼共生系统在经济和环境效益上的显著差异, 并为不同土地经营模式下稻鱼共生系统的绿色可持续发展提供了政策建议。
  • 图  1  青田稻鱼共生系统不同土地经营模式的碳足迹核算框架

    Figure  1.  Accounting framework of carbon footprints of different land management models in Qingtian Rice-Fish Culture System

    图  2  不同区域青田稻鱼共生系统碳足迹组成

    Figure  2.  Composition of carbon footprints in different areas of Qingtian Rice-Fish Culture System

    表  1  青田稻鱼共生系统不同区域的不同土地经营模式及其特点

    Table  1.   Land management models and their characteristics in different areas of Qingtian Rice-Fish Culture System

    区域
    Area
    土地经营模式
    Land management model
    主要特点
    Main characteristics
    龙现村
    Longxian Village
    以维持传统生产为重点
    Maintaining traditional farming as the focus
    实施种粮大户和稻鱼共生生态补贴政策, 促进土地流转和土地复垦, 注重稻鱼共生传统生产方式的传承与保护
    Providing subsidies for large-scale farmers and farmers who continue the rice-fish culture, promoting land transfer and land reclamation, and emphasizing on the inheritance and conservation of traditional production methods in the rice-fish culture
    新彭村
    Xinpeng Village
    以扩大田鱼养殖为重点
    Enlarging field fish raising as the focus
    建立稻鱼共生示范基地, 与浙江大学和上海海洋大学开展联合研究, 在水稻种植和田鱼养殖方面具有技术优势, 现代技术的引入帮助农户实现了靠田鱼养殖致富创收
    Establishing a rice-fish culture demonstration base, conducting joint research with Zhejiang University and Shanghai Ocean University, obtaining technical advantages in the rice-fish culture, and introducing modern technologies to help farmers in field fish raising
    小舟山村
    Xiaozhoushan Village
    以发展梯田旅游为重点
    Developing terrace tourism as the focus
    成立农民专业合作社, 开展绿色和有机生产, 利用大面积稻鱼梯田打造旅游景观、发展观光旅游, 参与的农户可获得政府补贴, 收获的稻谷由政府进行收购
    Establishing farmers’ cooperatives, carrying out green and organic production, and using large-scale rice-fish terraces to develop tourism through which farmers receive subsidies from the government and sell the harvested rice to the government
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  稻鱼共生系统的各项农业生产资料的温室气体排放因子

    Table  2.   Greenhouse gas emission factors of various agricultural production inputs of the rice-fish culture system

    项目
    Item
    排放因子
    Emission factor
    数据来源
    Data source
    kg(CO2-eq)∙kg−1 
    化肥 Fertilizer氮肥 Nitrogen fertilizer1.53[25]
    复合肥 Compound fertilizer1.77[25]
    农药 Pesticide16.61[26]
    饲料 Feed小麦 Wheat feed1.01[27]
    玉米 Corn feed0.79[27]
    成品饲料 Commercial feed0.10自行折算
    Self calculation
    油菜饼 Rapeseed feed1.33[21]
    燃料 Fuel汽油 Gasoline3.12[28]
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  不同区域青田稻鱼共生系统农业生产资料投入情况

    Table  3.   Agricultural production inputs in different areas of Qingtian Rice-Fish Culture System kg∙hm−2 

    区域
    Area
    化肥 Fertilizer农药
    Pesticide
    饲料 Feed燃料 Fuel
    氮肥
    Nitrogen fertilizer
    复合肥
    Compound fertilizer
    小麦
    Wheat feed
    玉米
    Corn feed
    油菜饼
    Rapeseed feed
    成品饲料
    Commercial feed
    汽油
    Gasoline
    龙现村
    Longxian Village
    181.8±257.1a630.6±584.4a2.6±2.6a220.4±572.4a336.1±992.3a0b042.7±69.1b
    新彭村
    Xinpeng Village
    114.5±275.9ab618.8±430.4ab51.4±45.9a150.0±573.6a65.5±207.7a698.3±1483.8a2259.4±3698.189.3±77.4a
    小舟山村
    Xiaozhoushan Village
    25.7±61.3b355.6±173.5b11.9±11.3ab277.4±324.4a0a286.9±428.8ab053.4±102.2ab
      同列数据后不同小写字母表示不同区域在P<0.05水平差异显著。Values followed by different lowercase letters in a column are significantly different at P<0.05 level.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  不同区域青田稻鱼共生系统农资投入温室气体排放量

    Table  4.   Greenhouse gases emissions from agricultural production inputs in different areas of Qingtian Rice-Fish Culture System

    区域
    Area
    化肥 Fertilizer农药
    Pesticide
    饲料 Feed燃料 Fuel合计
    Total
    氮肥
    Nitrogen fertilizer
    复合肥
    Compound fertilizer
    小麦
    Wheat feed
    玉米
    Corn feed
    油菜饼
    Rapeseed feed
    成品饲料
    Commercial feed
    汽油
    Gasoline
    kg(CO2-eq)∙hm−2 
    龙现村
    Longxian Village
    278.2±393.4a1116.2±1034.4a43.2±43.7b222.6±578.1a265.5±783.9a00133.2±215.6b2058.9±1789.3b
    新彭村
    Xinpeng Village
    175.2±422.1ab1095.3±761.8ab853.8±763.1a151.5±579.4a51.7±164.1a928.8±1973.5a225.9±369.8278.7±241.4a3761.0±2466.2a
    小舟山村
    Xiaozhoushan Village
    39.3±93.8b629.4±307.1b198.3±188.0b280.1±327.7a0381.6±570.3ab0166.7±319.0ab1695.4±985.2b
      同列数据后不同小写字母表示不同区域在P<0.05水平差异显著。Values followed by different lowercase letters in a column are significantly different at P<0.05 level.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  不同区域青田稻鱼共生系统的温室气体排放量及碳足迹

    Table  5.   Greenhouse gases emissions and carbon footprints in different areas of Qingtian Rice-Fish Culture System

    区域
    Area
    农业生产投入温室气体排放量
    Greenhouse gases emission from
    agricultural production inputs
    生产过程温室气体排放量
    Greenhouse gases emission in the process of agricultural production
    农业生产碳足迹
    Carbon footprint
    of agriculture
    N2O排放
    N2O emission
    CH4排放
    CH4 emission
    合计
    Total
    kg(CO2-eq)∙hm−2 
    龙现村
    Longxian Village
    2058.9±1789.3b183.3±170.9a4024.54207.8±170.9a6266.7±1893.2b
    新彭村
    Xinpeng Village
    3761.0±2466.2a143.1±184.0ab4024.54167.6±184.0ab7928.6±2521.9a
    小舟山村
    Xiaozhoushan Village
    1695.4±985.2b59.2±46.3b4024.54083.7±46.3b5779.1±990.3b
      同列数据后不同小写字母表示不同区域在P<0.05水平差异显著。Values followed by different lowercase letters in a column are significantly different at P<0.05 level.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  不同区域青田稻鱼共生系统产量、产值及单位产值碳足迹

    Table  6.   Yields, output values and carbon footprints per unit output in different areas of Qingtian Rice-Fish Culture System

    区域
    Area
    水稻 Rice田鱼 Field fish单位面积产值
    Output value per unit area
    (¥∙hm−2)
    单位产值碳足迹
    Carbon footprint per unit output [kg(CO2-eq)∙ ¥−1]
    产量
    Yield (kg∙hm−2)
    产值
    Output value (¥∙hm−2)
    产量
    Yield (kg∙hm−2)
    产值
    Output value (¥∙hm−2)
    龙现村
    Longxian Village
    6831.220 493.6318.331 830.052 323.60.12
    新彭村
    Xinpeng Village
    7241.621 724.81237.6123 760.0145 484.80.05
    小舟山村
    Xiaozhoushan Village
    4954.914 864.7187.118 710.033 574.70.17
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2021-10-31
  • 录用日期:  2021-12-20
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-01-27
  • 刊出日期:  2022-04-11

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