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华北平原小麦-玉米轮作系统碳中和潜力及固碳措施

王玉英 胡春胜 董文旭 张玉铭 李晓欣 刘秀萍

王玉英, 胡春胜, 董文旭, 张玉铭, 李晓欣, 刘秀萍. 华北平原小麦-玉米轮作系统碳中和潜力及固碳措施[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2022, 30(4): 651−657 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210747
引用本文: 王玉英, 胡春胜, 董文旭, 张玉铭, 李晓欣, 刘秀萍. 华北平原小麦-玉米轮作系统碳中和潜力及固碳措施[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2022, 30(4): 651−657 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210747
WANG Y Y, HU C S, DONG W X, ZHANG Y M, LI X X, LIU X P. Carbon neutralization potential and carbon sequestration efforts in a wheat-maize rotation system in the North China Plain[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2022, 30(4): 651−657 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210747
Citation: WANG Y Y, HU C S, DONG W X, ZHANG Y M, LI X X, LIU X P. Carbon neutralization potential and carbon sequestration efforts in a wheat-maize rotation system in the North China Plain[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2022, 30(4): 651−657 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210747

华北平原小麦-玉米轮作系统碳中和潜力及固碳措施

doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210747
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金项目(41875180和41530859)资助
详细信息
    作者简介:

    王玉英, 主要从事农田生态系统温室效应研究。E-mail: wangyuying@sjziam.ac.cn

    通讯作者:

    胡春胜, 主要研究方向为农田生态系统养分循环过程与机理。E-mail: cshu@sjziam.ac.cn

  • 中图分类号: X-3

Carbon neutralization potential and carbon sequestration efforts in a wheat-maize rotation system in the North China Plain

Funds: This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41875180, 41530859).
More Information
  • 摘要: 农业碳中和是将工业生产的二氧化碳(CO2)用于农业生产的有效手段。针对国家提出的CO2排放于2030年前达到峰值(碳达峰), 2060年前实现碳中和目标, 我们利用“静态箱-涡度相关-生物量监测法”明确了华北平原农业非能源碳平衡; 同时结合农户抽样调查和农事活动碳排放系数明确了农业能源碳排放, 进而计算出该区域农田的碳中和潜力。结果表明: 小麦-玉米轮作农田净截存的有机碳量小麦季和玉米季分别为604 g(C)∙m−2和540 g(C)∙m−2。考虑农田生态系统的呼吸损耗, 该区域小麦季和玉米季非能源碳净碳固存量分别为−359 g(C)∙m−2和−143 g(C)∙m−2。通过对农地投入中能源碳排放的研究发现, 冬小麦季农药、化肥、农用机械消耗柴油及农地灌溉的碳排放分别为3.74 g(C)∙m−2、90.70 g(C)∙m−2、5.68 g(C)∙m−2和2.05 g(C)∙m−2, 玉米季分别为2.89 g(C)∙m−2、53.70 g(C)∙m−2、10.20 g(C)∙m−2和2.05 g(C)∙m−2。综合非能源(包括籽粒固碳)和能源碳观测, 华北平原冬小麦季和夏玉米季均为碳汇, 其强度分别为−257 g(C)∙m−2和−74 g(C)∙m−2。以华北平原典型集约高产粮区——河北栾城为例, 其每年冬小麦和夏玉米农田的碳中和潜力分别为3.8×1010 g(C)和9.4×109 g(C)。此外加强耕地管理, 推广农业低碳化和发展富碳农业均可作为该区域有效的固碳措施。总之, 本研究明确了华北平原小麦-玉米轮作农田的碳汇强度, 估算了该农田系统在河北栾城的碳中和潜力, 并提出了有效的固碳措施。
  • 图  1  1978—2008年华北平原小麦-玉米轮作系统0~20 cm土层土壤有机碳储量的演变[13]

    Figure  1.  Evolution of soil organic carbon storage in the soil layer of 0−20 cm in wheat-maize rotation system in the North China Plain from 1978 to 2008[13]

    图  2  华北平原小麦-玉米两熟农田生态系统非能源碳收支平衡图[13][单位为g(C)∙m−2]

    C sink: 碳汇; C source: 碳源; GPP: 总初级生产力; NEE: 净生态系统碳交换量; NPP: 净初级生产力; Grain removal: 籽粒移除; Straw return: 秸秆还田; TER: 总生态系统呼吸; Raa: 地上部自养呼吸; Rab: 地下部自养呼吸; Rh: 异养呼吸。

    Figure  2.  Non-energy carbon budgets in a wheat-maize rotation ecosystem in the North China Plain[13]. The unit is g(C)∙m−2.

    GPP: global primary production; NEE: net ecosystem exchange; NPP: net primary production; TER: total ecosystem respiration; Raa: aboveground autotrophic respiration; Rab: underground autotrophic respiration; Rh: heterotrophic respiration.

    图  3  华北平原小麦-玉米两熟农田生态系统非能源碳与能源碳的碳收支平衡(小麦季为黑色字体, 玉米季为蓝色字体)

    Figure  3.  Carbon budgets of non-energy carbon and energy carbon in a wheat-maize rotation ecosystem in the North China Plain (black font represents wheat season and blue font represents maize season)

    表  1  农业能源碳排放系数的参考来源及华北平原小麦玉米农资投入量

    Table  1.   Reference sources of agricultural energy carbon emission coefficients and the input of agricultural resources in wheat and maize seasons in the North China Plain

    碳源
    Carbon source
    碳排放系数1)
    Carbon emission coefficient1)
    参考来源
    Reference source
    消耗量 Actual consumption [g(C)∙m−2]
    小麦季
    Wheat season
    玉米季
    Maize season
    化肥
    Chemical fertilizers
    0.8956Oak Ridge National Laboratory, USA90.753.7
    农药 Pesticides4.9341Oak Ridge National Laboratory, USA3.742.89
    农膜
    Agricultural film
    5.18南京农业大学农业资源与生态环境研究所
    Institute of Resources and Environment Sciences, Nanjing
    Agriculture University
    柴油 Diesel0.5927政府间气候变化专门委员会
    Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
    5.6810.2
    翻耕 Tillage312.6中国农业大学生物与技术学院
    College of Biological Sciences, China Agriculture University
    灌溉 Irrigation20.4672)Dubey2.052.05
      1)转换系数均为1 kg(C)∙kg−1。2)农业灌溉碳排放系数为25.00 kg∙hm−2, 由于此过程仅是火力发电间接引起碳排放, 故农业灌溉碳排放系数应是25.00 kg∙hm−2×火电系数(0.816)=20.467 kg∙hm−2。1) All conversion coefficients are 1 kg(C)∙kg−1. 2) The carbon emission coefficient of agricultural irrigation is 25.00 kg∙hm−2. However, the carbon emission of irrigation is only indirectly caused by thermal power generation, so the carbon emission coefficient of agricultural irrigation is 25.00 kg∙hm−2 × thermal power coefficient (0.816).
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-11-11
  • 录用日期:  2022-01-15
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-01-17
  • 刊出日期:  2022-04-11

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