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不同播期玉米籽粒灌浆特性及其与气象因子的关系

彭丹丹 吴超 徐开未 陈大刚 朱豪 刘圆圆 陈远学

彭丹丹, 吴超, 徐开未, 陈大刚, 朱豪, 刘圆圆, 陈远学. 不同播期玉米籽粒灌浆特性及其与气象因子的关系[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2022, 30(7): 1134−1142 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210755
引用本文: 彭丹丹, 吴超, 徐开未, 陈大刚, 朱豪, 刘圆圆, 陈远学. 不同播期玉米籽粒灌浆特性及其与气象因子的关系[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2022, 30(7): 1134−1142 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210755
PENG D D, WU C, XU K W, CHEN D G, ZHU H, LIU Y Y, CHEN Y X. Relationship between grain filling characteristics of maize and meteorological factors under different sowing dates[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2022, 30(7): 1134−1142 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210755
Citation: PENG D D, WU C, XU K W, CHEN D G, ZHU H, LIU Y Y, CHEN Y X. Relationship between grain filling characteristics of maize and meteorological factors under different sowing dates[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2022, 30(7): 1134−1142 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210755

不同播期玉米籽粒灌浆特性及其与气象因子的关系

doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210755
基金项目: 四川省科技计划项目(2020YJ0354)、现代农业玉米产业技术体系项目(CARS-02-04)和国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFD0300300)资助
详细信息
    作者简介:

    彭丹丹, 主要研究方向为植物逆境生理与分子生物学。E-mail: Diana-peng@hotmail.com

    通讯作者:

    陈远学, 主要从事植物营养与养分管理研究。E-mail: cyxue11889@163.com

  • 中图分类号: S513

Relationship between grain filling characteristics of maize and meteorological factors under different sowing dates

Funds: This study was supported by the Science and Technology Program of Sichuan Province (2020YJ0354), the China Agriculture Research System (CARS-02-04) and the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2016YFD0300300).
More Information
  • 摘要: 为探讨吐丝后玉米百粒重和籽粒灌浆参数与气象因子之间的关系, 为成都平原区玉米适期播种及高产高效栽培提供参考依据, 本研究以广适玉米品种‘仲玉3号’为供试材料, 设置6个播期处理(3月27日、4月6日、4月16日、4月26日、5月6日、5月16日), 研究不同播期下籽粒干物质积累及灌浆特性。结果表明: 随播期推迟, 玉米生育时期缩短, 籽粒产量和百粒重显著降低; 产量下降主要由粒重引起, 而引起粒重降低的原因主要与灌浆速率和灌浆速率达最大值的粒重有关, 而灌浆速率和灌浆速率达最大值的粒重受吐丝后有效积温、日平均温度和降雨量的显著影响。在试验范围内, 籽粒灌浆速率、灌浆速率达最大值的粒重和最终百粒重随日平均温度的升高而增高, 随有效积温的增加呈增大的趋势。延迟播种, 因玉米灌浆期大量降雨引起灌浆速率降低, 粒重减小; 积温是影响籽粒灌浆和百粒重的主要气象因子, 适时早播玉米生育时期相对延长, 吐丝后有效积温增多有利于籽粒灌浆。在当地气候条件下, 4月6日播种吐丝后有效积温达863.36 ℃时, 灌浆性能较好, 可获得较高的粒重和产量。生产上应根据不同种植制度选择适宜的播种日期, 春播应尽量安排在3月底至4月初播种, 对于需要晚播的区域, 应考虑与前茬作物的关系, 争取在5月上旬完成播种, 避免后期气象因子异常对籽粒灌浆造成不利的影响。
  • 图  1  研究区玉米生育期内降雨量、最高气温和最低气温变化情况(2020年)

    Figure  1.  Precipitation, daily maximum temperature, daily minimum temperature during maize growth period in 2020 in the study area

    图  2  玉米收获期籽粒产量与穗粒数、百粒重的相关性

      **: P<0.01.

    Figure  2.  Relationship between grain yield and kernel number, 100-kernel weight at harvest of maize

    图  3  不同播期下玉米吐丝后籽粒干物质积累的动态变化

    SD1、SD2、SD3、SD4、SD5和SD6分别代表第1至第6个播期。

    Figure  3.  Dynamics of dry matter accumulation in kernels of maize sown in different dates

    SD1, SD2, SD3, SD4, SD5 and SD6 are sowing dates from the first to the sixth.

    图  4  玉米籽粒灌浆参数及百粒重与气象因子的冗余分析

    KW: 收获期百粒重; Wmax: 灌浆速率达最大值的粒重; Gave: 平均灌浆速率; AT: 吐丝后有效积温; MT: 日平均气温; Tmin: 日最低温度; Tmax: 日最高温度; Tmax-min: 日温差; SH: 日照时数; Pr: 降雨量。

    Figure  4.  Redundancy analysis of grain filling parameters, final kernel weight of maize and meteorological factors

    KW: final 100-kernel weight; Wmax: kernel weight at the maximum grain-filling rate; Gave: average grain-filling rate; AT: effective accumulated temperature after silking; MT: daily mean temperature; Tmin: daily minimum temperature; Tmax: daily maximum temperature; Tmax-min: diurnal temperature range; SH: sunshine hours; Pr: precipitation.

    图  5  玉米籽粒百粒重、灌浆速率及灌浆速率达最大值的粒重与气象因子的回归分析

    Figure  5.  Regression analysis between 100-kernel weight, grain-filling rate, kernel weight at the maximum grain-filling rate and meteorological factors

    表  1  不同播期下玉米的关键生育时期与有效积温

    Table  1.   Dates of key growth stages and effective accumulated temperature of maize sown in different dates

    处理
    Treatment
    播种日期(月-日)
    Sowing date
    (month-day)
    吐丝期(月-日)
    Date of silking stage
    (month-day)
    生理成熟期(月-日)
    Date of physiological maturity (month-day)
    播种—吐丝期
    天数
    Days from sowing
    to silking
    (d)
    吐丝—生理成熟期
    天数
    Days from silking to physiological maturity
    (d)
    生育期天数
    Duration of
    growth period
    (d)
    吐丝—生理成熟期
    有效积温
    Accumulated temperature from silking to physiological maturity (℃·d)
    SD103-2706-1408-067953132873.4
    SD204-0606-1908-107452126866.3
    SD304-1606-2508-157051121851.0
    SD404-2607-0108-206650116813.5
    SD505-0607-0808-256348111773.6
    SD605-1607-1408-305947106755.7
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  不同播期下收获期玉米穗粒数、百粒重和产量的变化

    Table  2.   Grain yield, kernel number and 100-kernel weight at harvest of maize sown in different dates

    播种日期 (月-日)
    Sowing date
    (month-day)
    穗粒数
    Kernel number
    (×107 kernels·hm−2)
    百粒重
    100-kernel
    weight (g)
    产量
    Yield (kg·hm−2)
    03-273.61±0.39a30.21±0.39a12 224.41±104.26a
    04-063.40±0.27a29.17±0.54b11 371.89±17.13b
    04-163.67±0.42a28.00±0.99c10 723.71±71.09b
    04-263.77±0.24a26.98±0.20cd11 148.59±560.50b
    05-063.64±0.18a26.63±0.69d9757.28±799.62c
    05-163.61±0.53a26.36±0.08d9475.77±456.56c
      同列不同小写字母表示不同处理间差异显著(P<0.05)。Values followed by different lowercase letters within a column are significantly different at 0.05 probability.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  不同播期下玉米的灌浆参数及其与收获期百粒重的相关性

    Table  3.   Grain-filling parameters of maize sown in different dates and their correlation coefficients wtih 100-kernel weight

    播种日期 (月-日)
    Sowing date (month-day)
    Richards 方程
    Richards equation
    W=A(1+BeCt)−1/D
    R2灌浆参数 Grain filling parameter
    P
    (d)
    Dmax
    (d)
    Wmax
    [g∙(100 grains)−1]
    Gmax
    [g∙(100 grains)−1∙d−1]
    Gave
    [g∙(100 grains)−1∙d−1]
    03-27W=31.58(1+0.40e−0.09t)−1/0.050.999846.59 24.74 11.88 1.00 0.68
    04-06W=30.12(1+0.58e−0.10t)−1/0.070.998843.5722.0511.471.020.69
    04-16W=28.87(1+0.58e−0.10t)−1/0.070.999642.5421.6910.981.000.68
    04-26W=27.51(1+1.27e−0.10t)−1/0.130.998741.0021.7410.750.990.67
    05-06W=26.88(1+0.39e−0.09t)−1/0.060.998443.4220.3510.160.910.62
    05-16W=26.69(1+1.91e−0.10t)−1/0.170.999444.1624.5810.600.890.60
    相关性 Correlation coefficient (r)0.3110.3680.826**0.671**0.661**
      P: 活跃灌浆期; Dmax: 灌浆速率达最大时的天数; Wmax: 灌浆速率达最大值的粒重; Gmax: 最大灌浆速率; Gave: 平均灌浆速率。**: P<0.01水平差异显著。P: active grain-filling period; Dmax: date of the maximum grain-filling rate; Wmax: kernel weight at the maximum grain-filling rate; Gmax: maximum grain-filling rate; Gave: average grain-filling rate. **: correlation coefficients significant at 0.01 probability.
    下载: 导出CSV
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