The potential and the impact factors for phosphorus recovery from wastewater via struvite precipitation
摘要: 磷作为生命所必需的营养物质因其不可再生性、资源消耗和浪费导致的环境水体富营养化而引起人们的广泛关注。大量研究通过鸟粪石结晶技术从无机合成废水和真实废水中进行磷素回收, 降低水体富营养化风险, 并形成磷酸镁铵肥料。然而, 鸟粪石结晶过程只涉及无机磷, 而真实废水中有机磷含量高达总磷的30%~40%, 导致鸟粪石结晶技术在实际应用中磷素回收率变异极大。目前, 鸟粪石结晶法在真实废水与无机合成废水中磷回收率差距的量化分析缺乏, 导致差异产生的机制和影响因子不明。本研究从103篇文献中收集了1186项观测数据, 定量分析了在真实废水与无机合成废水中鸟粪石结晶磷回收率, 解析了磷回收差距的潜在影响因子。结果表明, 鸟粪石结晶法对无机合成废水中总磷的去除率(83.6%)高于真实废水(76.9%)。在真实废水中, 鸟粪石结晶对pH和钙等外来离子更敏感, 导致其总磷去除率变异较大, 在20.4%和99.9%之间。镁离子和钙离子是影响鸟粪石结晶的重要因子, 当Mg∶P比在1和2之间时, 镁离子对鸟粪石结晶有积极的影响, 而钙离子的存在对鸟粪石的形成有抑制作用。磷结晶沉淀作为一种非生物过程, 有机磷矿化是总磷回收的限制因素。因此, 曝气在有机磷矿化过程中起着重要作用, 额外提供6 L∙min−1的曝气流量有利于提高总磷和无机磷的回收率。提高镁磷比并不是提高磷回收率的关键因素, 但对鸟粪石的组成和纯度具有显著影响。Abstract: Phosphorous (P) is an essential nutrient for living organisms, and there is a concern regarding the challenges of both supply uncertainty and the linked aquatic eutrophication. Phosphorus recovery through struvite precipitation technology has attracted much attention in research as it prevents eutrophication and forms a slow-release fertilizer that serves as an alternative source of P in both synthetic wastewater (SW) and real waste (RW). However, only inorganic soluble P is involved in the reaction. Therefore, the ratio of organic P, which is up to 30%–40% of total P in real wastewater systems, leads to a variation of P recovery rates in practice. There is a lack of knowledge on the underlying differences and the factors causing the disparity in the P recovery, and few studies have attempted to quantify the gap in the P recovery rates of SW and RW. Data mining was conducted using 103 studies with 1186 observations to quantify the P recovery rate in SW and RW, establish the underlying factors affecting the P recovery, and derive solutions. Results showed that P recovery rate in SW (83.6%) was higher than that in RW (76.9%). A large variation in the P recovery rate (20.4% to 99.9%) in RW was detected since it was more sensitive to pH and foreign ions, such as calcium. Magnesium and calcium were found to impact struvite crystallization; magnesium had a positive impact at a specific Mg∶P ratio between 1 and 2, with SW being more sensitive, while calcium inhibited struvite formation. P precipitation is an abiotic process, and organic P concentration plays a crucial role in the total P recovery rate. Aeration played an important role in the mineralization of organic P. Therefore, supplying aeration at a flow rate of 6 L∙min−1 was beneficial for both total and inorganic P recovery. Increasing the Mg∶P ratio was not a crucial factor for P recovery in practice, but it significantly impacts the components of the precipitate.
Table 1. Distribution of P species and other constituents in livestock slurry and liquid waste
Waste type pH Total solid
Mean±SD n Mean±SD n Mean±SD n Mean±SD n Mean±SD n Mean±SD n Swine slurry 7.80±0.37 11 7.76±4.70 7 10.44±9.50 11 65.0±47.0 11 243.0±158.0 9 249.0±175.0 11 Swine liquid 9.30±1.30 112 1.02±0.62 5 4.20±0.95 35 36.2±27.3 44 112.5±336.7 10 363.8±501.8 82 Dairy slurry 8.10±0.07 2 4.20±0.20 2 NR NR 1677.0±40.0 2 216.0±245.0 2 1719.0±205.0 2 Dairy liquid 8.11±1.07 7 0.94±0.13 2 0.89±0.12 2 393.4±432.8 8 87.4±140.8 8 480.8±540.5 8 NR: not recorded; SD: standard deviation; n: number of samples.
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