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中国农业食物系统能源碳排放趋势分析

张向阳 张玉梅 冯晓龙 樊胜根 陈志钢

张向阳, 张玉梅, 冯晓龙, 樊胜根, 陈志钢. 中国农业食物系统能源碳排放趋势分析[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2022, 30(4): 535−542 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210784
引用本文: 张向阳, 张玉梅, 冯晓龙, 樊胜根, 陈志钢. 中国农业食物系统能源碳排放趋势分析[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2022, 30(4): 535−542 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210784
ZHANG X Y, ZHANG Y M, FENG X L, FAN S G, CHEN K. Carbon emissions of agrifood systems from energy consumption in China[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2022, 30(4): 535−542 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210784
Citation: ZHANG X Y, ZHANG Y M, FENG X L, FAN S G, CHEN K. Carbon emissions of agrifood systems from energy consumption in China[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2022, 30(4): 535−542 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210784

中国农业食物系统能源碳排放趋势分析

doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210784
基金项目: 中国农业科学院科技创新工程项目(ASTIP-IAED-2021-05)、国家自然科学基金国际(地区)合作与交流项目(72061147002, 71761147004)和中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金(2021TC045)资助
详细信息
    作者简介:

    张向阳, 主要研究方向为农业经济理论与政策。E-mail: zhangxiangyang0214@163.com

    通讯作者:

    张玉梅, 主要研究方向为农业政策和农业农村发展。E-mail: zhangyumei@caas.cn

  • 中图分类号: S-9

Carbon emissions of agrifood systems from energy consumption in China

Funds: This study was supported by the Agricultural Science and Technology Innovation Program of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (ASTIP-IAED-2021-05), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (72061147002, 71761147004) and Chinese Universities Scientific Fund (2021TC045).
More Information
  • 摘要: 尽管农业直接消耗能源带来的碳排放量有限, 但农业的生产和消费方式发生很大变化, 农业产业链不断延长, 整个农业食物系统的能源消耗及其产生的碳排放不断增加, 不容忽视。为了科学核算农业食物系统的能源消耗带来的碳排放量, 本文基于1997—2018年投入产出表和分行业能源消耗量数据, 利用投入产出法核算了农业食物系统转型过程中能源活动的碳排放量的变化趋势和构成。该方法的优点是不仅核算了农业食物系统直接消耗能源所产生的碳排放, 而且估算了整个产业链由于使用中间投入品而带来的间接能源消耗产生的排放量, 使得核算更加全面。研究发现: 2018年, 农业食物系统的直接和间接消耗能源产生的碳排放高达6.7亿t, 远高于农业直接能源消耗产生的碳排放量(1.0亿t)。1997—2018年, 农业食物系统的能源消耗带来的碳排放量呈增长趋势, 与1997年的5.3亿t相比, 2018年增长26.4%, 但其年均增长速率(1.1%)低于非农业食物系统6.3%, 因此, 农业食物系统能源活动碳排放量占中国能源活动碳排放总量的比重显著下降, 从16.3%下降到6.4%。食品加工业是农业食物系统能源活动中最主要排放来源, 2018年占农业食物系统能源活动碳排放量的62.7%。由于能源利用效率的提高, 农业能源活动的碳排放量虽呈下降趋势, 但仍是农业食物系统能源活动中第二大排放来源; 与农业相关的批发零售、运输仓储和餐饮等行业碳排放量及比重不断增加。因此, 应从产业链各环节减排、加快食品加工业低碳低耗发展、促进农业绿色发展、优化能源结构等方面助力实现减排。
  • 图  1  2000—2020年中国农业投入品数量

    Figure  1.  Agricultural inputs in China during 2000−2020

    图  2  1997—2018年投入产出法和直接法计算的农业生产活动的能源碳排放量

    Figure  2.  Carbon emissions of agricultural energy consumption using input-output method and direct method from 1997 to 2018

    图  3  1997—2018年中国能源活动碳排放量

    FAO: 联合国粮农组织数据; IEA: 国际能源署数据; 占比指农业食物系统能源活动碳排放量占能源活动碳排放总量的比重。

    Figure  3.  Carbon emissions from energy use in China during 1997−2018

    FAO: data of Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; IEA: data of International Energy Agency; Share: percentage of carbon emissions from energy activities in the agrifood systems to the total carbon emissions from energy activities.

    图  4  1997—2018年中国农业食物系统能源活动碳排放量(a)和结构(b)

    Figure  4.  Carbon emissions from agrifood systems (a) and its structure (b) in China during 1997−2018

    表  1  1997—2018年农业和食品加工业消耗的能源及结构

    Table  1.   Energy consumption and structure of agricultural and food processing industries in China from 1997 to 2018

    能源
    Energy
    农业 Agriculture食品加工业 Food processing
    199720022007201220172018199720022007201220172018
    消耗量 Consumption [×104 t (standard coal)]
    原油 Crude oil 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 1 0 0 0
    燃料油 Fuel oil 4 1 1 3 2 1 45 39 54 21 10 7
    汽油 Petrol 285 149 254 284 338 358 108 139 48 75 46 28
    煤油 Coal oil 2 2 1 2 2 7 2 1 2 0 0 0
    煤 Coal 1508 669 1085 1619 2024 1688 23 20 27 10 5 4
    焦炭 Coke 141 72 56 56 37 100 30 32 16 14 137 134
    柴油 Diesel oil 1583 1193 1776 1946 2254 2139 86 111 147 132 86 64
    天然气
    Natural gas
    0 0 0 0 0 0 423 419 364 445 382 364
    电力 Electricity 804 745 1080 1244 1444 1528 367 524 1065 1404 1460 1552
    占比 Proportion (%)
    原油 Crude oil 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0
    燃料油 Fuel oil 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 4.2 3.1 3.1 1.0 0.5 0.3
    汽油 Petrol 6.6 5.3 6.0 5.5 5.5 6.1 9.9 10.8 2.8 3.6 2.1 1.3
    煤油 Coal oil 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0
    煤 Coal 34.9 23.6 25.5 31.4 33.2 29.0 2.1 1.5 1.6 0.5 0.2 0.2
    焦炭 Coke 3.2 2.5 1.3 1.1 0.6 1.7 2.8 2.5 0.9 0.7 6.4 6.2
    柴油 Diesel oil 36.6 42.2 41.7 37.8 36.9 36.8 8.0 8.6 8.5 6.3 4.1 3.0
    天然气
    Natural gas
    0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 38.9 32.6 21.1 21.1 18.0 16.9
    电力 Electricity 18.6 26.3 25.5 24.1 23.8 26.3 33.8 40.7 61.8 66.8 68.7 72.1
      数据来源: 《中国能源统计年鉴》。Source: China Energy Statistical Yearbook.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  2002—2018年农业食物系统各部门能源利用效率

    Table  2.   Efficiency of energy utilization of agrifood systems by subsectors in China from 2000 to 2018

    部门 Sector20022007201220172018
    t(standard coal)∙(104¥)−1(GDP) 
    全部行业 All sectors1.201.301.070.860.83
    农业 Agriculture0.220.320.260.250.24
    食品加工业 Food processing0.560.450.330.36
    交通运输仓储 Transportation and storage1.351.800.932.202.24
    批发零售业和住宿餐饮业 Wholesale, retail and catering1.910.330.540.320.31
      根据《中国能源统计年鉴》中分行业能源消耗量与《中国统计年鉴》中GDP整理得到, GDP为2005年可比价。The value is calculated by using the data of energy use of subsectors from China Energy Statistical Yearbook and the GDP from the China Statistical Yearbook. GDP is adjusted by comparable prices in 2005.
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-11-12
  • 录用日期:  2021-12-01
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-01-22
  • 刊出日期:  2022-04-11

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