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北方典型农业生态系统的固碳减排路径及模式

蔡育蓉 王立刚

蔡育蓉, 王立刚. 北方典型农业生态系统的固碳减排路径及模式[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2022, 30(4): 641−650 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210789
引用本文: 蔡育蓉, 王立刚. 北方典型农业生态系统的固碳减排路径及模式[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2022, 30(4): 641−650 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210789
CAI Y R, WANG L G. Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas mitigation paths and modes in a typical agroecosystem in northern China[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2022, 30(4): 641−650 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210789
Citation: CAI Y R, WANG L G. Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas mitigation paths and modes in a typical agroecosystem in northern China[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2022, 30(4): 641−650 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210789

北方典型农业生态系统的固碳减排路径及模式

doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210789
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金项目(32171564)和国家重点研发计划项目(2021YFD1901002)资助
详细信息
    作者简介:

    蔡育蓉, 主要研究方向为气候变化与生物地球化学循环。E-mail: c1363859143@163.com

    通讯作者:

    王立刚, 主要研究方向为气候变化与生物地球化学循环。E-mail: wangligang@caas.cn

  • 中图分类号: S-3

Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas mitigation paths and modes in a typical agroecosystem in northern China

Funds: The study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (32171564) and The National Key Research & Development Project (2021YFD1901002).
More Information
  • 摘要: 北方农业生态系统在保障我国粮食安全和生态安全方面具有举足轻重的地位, 尤其在氧化亚氮(N2O)减排和土壤固碳方面具有巨大的潜力, 但在“碳达峰”与“碳中和”实施过程中, 在保障粮食安全的基础上, 农田土壤固碳和非二氧化碳减排的路径如何选择?不同区域典型农业生态系统固碳减排模式是什么?固碳减排实施过程需要注意哪些问题?这些问题尚缺乏系统研究。因此, 本文在系统分析北方不同区域农业生产特点的基础上, 提出北方农业生态系统温室气体减排遵循“稳能减排”、固碳遵循“减速双增”的路径, 并指出不同区域固碳减排重点内容; 归纳提出低碳循环、扩容增碳、碳优化养殖、节氮保碳等4种模式的技术构成、固碳减排效应及其适应区域; 进而探究了北方农业生产助力“碳达峰”与“碳中和”过程需要关注“固碳与减排协同、固碳减排效率、技术模式大规模实施”等问题, 为我国北方低碳绿色农业发展提供思路和支撑。
  • 图  1  2019年我国北方和南方农产品产量占全国产量比例[14]

    Figure  1.  Proportions of output of agricultural products and livestock products in southern China and northern China in the national output in 2019[14]

    图  2  北方农业生态系统固碳减排路径图

    Figure  2.  Carbon sequestration and emission mitigation pathes of agricultural ecosystem in North China

    表  1  北方典型农业生态系统固碳减排模式

    Table  1.   Carbon sequestration and emission mitigation models of typical agro-ecosystems in the northern China

    模式分类
    Mode classification
    模式内容
    Mode content
    典型案例
    Classic case
    固碳减排效应
    Effects of carbon sequestration and emission mitigation
    适宜区域
    Suitable area
    低碳循环模式
    Low carbon cycle modes
    农牧结合模式、种养结合模式、“四位一体”和“五配套”生态农业模式等
    Combination mode of agriculture and animal husbandry, combination mode of planting-breeding, “Four in One” and “Five Supporting Facilities” ecological agriculture mode, etc.
    东北农牧交错区物质循环“新型农牧结合模式”[39]
    “New agricultural and pastoral binding mode” of material circulation in agro-pastoral ecotones of Northeast China
    该模式在吉林省五棵树累计减排温室气体1.8×107 t CO2当量、增加土壤有机质储量5.1×105 t
    The mode has total reduced greenhouse gas emissions by 1.8×107 t CO2-eq and increased soil organic matter reserves by 5.1×105 t in Wukeshu, Jilin Province
    农牧交错区、种养殖相对集中的地区、西北和东北等区域
    Agro-pastoral ecotones, areas with relatively concentrated planting and breeding, Northwest China and Northeast China, etc.
    扩容增碳模式
    Capacity expansion and carbon increase mode
    免耕模式、深松结合秸秆还田模式、增加植被覆盖度模式、合理轮作模式等
    No-tillage mode, Subsoiling combined with straw application mode, vegetation cover-increasing mode, reasonable rotation mode, etc.
    东北黑土增产保碳“梨树模式”[40]
    “Pear tree mode” of increasing yield and carbon conservation in black soil in Northeast China
    连续免耕覆盖5年后, 土壤有机质增加20%, 减少化肥施用量20%
    After continuous no-tillage and straw mulching for 5 years, soil organic matter increased by 20% and chemical fertilizer application decreased by 20%
    东北、华北和西北粮食主要种植区域
    Major grain growing areas in Northeast, North and Northwest China
    碳优化养殖模式
    Carbon optimized breeding mode
    禁牧围封模式、季节性轮牧模式、划区轮牧模式、TMR日粮结合废弃物优化处理模式
    Livestock exclusion mode, seasonal rotational grazing mode, zoning rotational grazing mode, optimal treatment mode of TMR diet combined with waste
    河北农牧交错区优化养殖“季节性轮牧和禁牧围封模式”[41]
    “Seasonal rotational grazing and livestock exclusion mode” for optimizing the breeding in an agro-pastoral ecotones of Hebei Province
    夏季放牧和冬季放牧草地为温室气体源[温室气体净排放量为2249 kg(CO2-eq)∙a−1和1665 kg(CO2-eq)∙a−1], 长期禁牧草地为温室气体汇[温室气体净排放量为−1826 kg(CO2-eq)∙a−1]
    Summer-grazed steppe and winter-grazed steppe are the sources of greenhouse gases with net greenhouse gas exchange of 2249 and 1665 kg(CO2-eq)∙a−1, long-term ungrazed steppe is the sink of greenhouse gases with net greenhouse gas exchange of −1826 kg(CO2-eq)∙a−1.
    北方牧区及农牧交错区, 如内蒙古、新疆、青海等地
    Northern pastoral areas and agro-pastoral ecotones, such as Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang, Qinghai, etc.
    节氮保碳模式
    Nitrogen saving and carbon conservation mode
    合理施肥模式、添加抑制剂模式、添加生物炭模式
    Rational fertilization mode, adding inhibitor mode, adding biochar mode
    内蒙古河套灌区“玉米秸秆炭化还田模
    式”[42]
    “Corn straw carbonization application mode” in Hetao Irrigation Area, Inner Mongolia
    与不施加生物炭相比, 施加15 t·hm−2、30 t·hm−2和45 t·hm−2生物炭的温室气体排放强度分别降低88.9%、121.6%和100.0%, 作物产量分别增加6.3%、7.3%和1.7%
    Compared with non biochar application, application of 15, 30 and 45 t∙hm−2 biochar decreases greenhouse gas emission intensity by 88.9%, 121.6% and 100.0%, respectively; increased crop yield by 6.3%, 7.3% and 1.7%, respectively.
    适宜应用粮食种植区和蔬菜种植区
    Grain and vegetable growing areas
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-11-14
  • 录用日期:  2021-12-03
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-01-12
  • 刊出日期:  2022-04-11

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