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钾硅肥配施对胡麻茎秆木质素代谢及抗倒伏特性的影响

徐清 郭丽琢 刘亚辉 高玉红

徐清, 郭丽琢, 刘亚辉, 高玉红. 钾硅肥配施对胡麻茎秆木质素代谢及抗倒伏特性的影响[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2022, 30(9): 1451−1463 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210849
引用本文: 徐清, 郭丽琢, 刘亚辉, 高玉红. 钾硅肥配施对胡麻茎秆木质素代谢及抗倒伏特性的影响[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2022, 30(9): 1451−1463 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210849
XU Q, GUO L Z, LIU Y H, GAO Y H. Effects of potassium and silicon fertilization on lignin metabolism and lodging resistance of oil flax stem[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2022, 30(9): 1451−1463 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210849
Citation: XU Q, GUO L Z, LIU Y H, GAO Y H. Effects of potassium and silicon fertilization on lignin metabolism and lodging resistance of oil flax stem[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2022, 30(9): 1451−1463 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210849

钾硅肥配施对胡麻茎秆木质素代谢及抗倒伏特性的影响

doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210849
基金项目: 财政部和农业农村部国家现代农业产业技术体系(CARS-14-1-16)资助
详细信息
    作者简介:

    徐清, 研究方向为作物栽培与生理生态。E-mail: 2542665068@qq.com

    通讯作者:

    郭丽琢, 研究方向为作物栽培与生理生态研究。E-mail: guolz@gsau.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: S565.9

Effects of potassium and silicon fertilization on lignin metabolism and lodging resistance of oil flax stem

Funds: This study was supported by the China Agriculture Research System of Mninistry of Finance and Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, the People’s Republic of China.
More Information
  • 摘要: 通过田间试验, 探讨了钾硅养分耦合对胡麻茎秆木质素代谢及抗倒伏特性的调控效应, 以期为肥料运筹抗倒伏提供依据。选用三因素裂区试验设计, 以两个胡麻品种‘陇亚11号’(V1)、‘定亚23号’(V2)为主区因素; 钾肥为副区因素, 设0 kg(K2O)∙hm−2 (K0)、52.5 kg(K2O)∙hm−2 (K1)、105 kg(K2O)∙hm−2 (K2) 3个水平; 硅肥为副副区因素, 设0 kg(SiO2)∙hm−2 (Si0)、90 kg(SiO2)∙hm−2 (Si1)两个水平。结果表明, V1和V2的茎秆木质素含量及代谢酶活性具有显著差异。施钾显著提高了木质素含量及苯丙氨酸解氨酶(PAL)、4-香豆酸辅酶A连接酶(4CL)和肉桂醇脱氢酶(CAD)的活性, 且始终保持K1>K2>K0的趋势; 施硅对上述试验指标无显著的主效应, 但钾硅肥互作效应显著提升了现蕾前的木质素含量及整个生育期的PAL、4CL和CAD的活性, 且K1Si1处理的提升效果最佳。木质素含量与整个生育期的CAD活性极显著或显著正相关, CAD活性的提高是胡麻茎秆木质素含量增加的重要酶学基础。V1的抗折力和抗倒伏指数极显著高于V2; 与K0相比, K1显著提高了茎秆抗折力和抗倒伏指数, K2水平下变化趋势相反, 且始终保持K1>K0>K2的趋势; 施硅可提高茎秆的抗折力和抗倒伏指数, 且低钾配施硅肥可显著提升茎秆抗折力和抗倒伏指数。木质素含量与抗折力、抗倒伏指数显著正相关, 与实际倒伏率负相关。低钾处理及低钾配施硅肥均显著提高了籽粒产量。综上, ‘陇亚11号’胡麻的抗倒伏性能显著优于‘定亚23号’; 52.5 kg(K2O)∙hm−2+90 kg(SiO2)∙hm−2对木质素含量及其代谢酶活性、抗倒伏能力和籽粒产量的提升效果最佳, 且单施钾肥对木质素代谢及抗倒伏特性的提升效果优于单施硅肥。
  • 图  1  钾硅肥配施下不同胡麻品种各生育时期的茎秆木质素含量

    V1和V2分别为胡麻品种‘陇亚11号’和‘定亚23号’。K0、K1和K2分别表示施钾量为0 kg(K2O)∙hm−2、52.5 kg(K2O)∙hm−2和105 kg(K2O)∙hm−2; Si0和Si1分别表示施硅量为0 kg(SiO2)∙hm−2和90 kg(SiO2)∙hm−2。同一时期不同小写字母表示处理间在P<0.05水平差异显著。V1 and V2 are flax varieties ‘Longya 11’ and ‘Dingya 23’, respectively. K0, K1 and K2 represent potassium application rates of 0, 52.5 and 105 kg(K2O)∙hm−2, respectively; Si0 and Si1 represent silicon application rates of 0 and 90 kg(SiO2)∙hm−2, respectively. Different lowercase letters in the same growth stage indicate significant differences among treatments at P<0.05 level.

    Figure  1.  Stem lignin contents of two flax varieties at different growth stages under combined application of potassium and silicon fertilizers

    图  2  钾硅肥配施对胡麻不同生育时期茎秆木质素代谢酶活性的影响

    V1和V2分别为胡麻品种‘陇亚11号’和‘定亚23号’。K0、K1和K2分别表示施钾量为0 kg(K2O)∙hm−2、52.5 kg(K2O)∙hm−2和105 kg(K2O)∙hm−2; Si0和Si1分别表示施硅量为0 kg(SiO2)∙hm−2和90 kg(SiO2)∙hm−2。同一时期不同小写字母表示处理间在P<0.05水平差异显著。V1 and V2 are flax varieties ‘Longya 11’ and ‘Dingya 23’, respectively. K0, K1 and K2 represent potassium application rates of 0, 52.5 and 105 kg(K2O)∙hm−2, respectively; Si0 and Si1 represent silicon application rates of 0 and 90 kg(SiO2)∙hm−2, respectively. Different lowercase letters in the same growth stage indicate significant differences among treatments at P<0.05 level.

    Figure  2.  Effects of combined application of potassium and silicon fertilizers on lignin metabolism enzymes activities in stems at different growth stages of different flax varities

    图  3  钾硅肥配施下胡麻不同生育时期的茎秆抗折力

    V1和V2分别为胡麻品种‘陇亚11号’和‘定亚23号’。K0、K1和K2分别表示施钾量为0 kg(K2O)∙hm−2、52.5 kg(K2O)∙hm−2和105 kg(K2O)∙hm−2; Si0和Si1分别表示施硅量为0 kg(SiO2)∙hm−2和90 kg(SiO2)∙hm−2。同一时期不同小写字母表示处理间在P<0.05水平差异显著。V1 and V2 are flax varieties ‘Longya 11’ and ‘Dingya 23’, respectively. K0, K1 and K2 represent potassium application rates of 0, 52.5 and 105 kg(K2O)∙hm−2, respectively; Si0 and Si1 represent silicon application rates of 0 and 90 kg(SiO2)∙hm−2, respectively. Different lowercase letters in the same growth stage indicate significant differences among treatments at P<0.05 level.

    Figure  3.  Stems breaking resistance under combined application of potassium and silicon fertilizers at different growth stages

    图  4  钾硅肥配施下胡麻不同生育时期茎秆的抗倒伏指数

    V1和V2分别为胡麻品种‘陇亚11号’和‘定亚23号’。K0、K1和K2分别表示施钾量为0 kg(K2O)∙hm−2、52.5 kg(K2O)∙hm−2和105 kg(K2O)∙hm−2; Si0和Si1分别表示施硅量为0 kg(SiO2)∙hm−2和90 kg(SiO2)∙hm−2。同一时期不同小写字母表示处理间在P<0.05水平差异显著。V1 and V2 are flax varieties ‘Longya 11’ and ‘Dingya 23’, respectively. K0, K1 and K2 represent potassium application rates of 0, 52.5 and 105 kg(K2O)∙hm−2, respectively; Si0 and Si1 represent silicon application rates of 0 and 90 kg(SiO2)∙hm−2, respectively. Different lowercase letters in the same growth stage indicate significant differences among treatments at P<0.05 level.

    Figure  4.  Lodging resistance index of flax stem under combined application of potassium and silicon fertilizers at different growth stages

    图  5  钾硅肥配施对不同胡麻品种产量的影响

    V1和V2分别为胡麻品种‘陇亚11号’和‘定亚23号’。K0、K1和K2分别表示施钾量为0 kg(K2O)∙hm−2、52.5 kg(K2O)∙hm−2和105 kg(K2O)∙hm−2; Si0和Si1分别表示施硅量为0 kg(SiO2)∙hm−2和90 kg(SiO2)∙hm−2。不同小写字母表示处理间在P<0.05水平差异显著。V1 and V2 are flax varieties ‘Longya 11’ and ‘Dingya 23’, respectively. K0, K1 and K2 represent potassium application rates of 0, 52.5 and 105 kg(K2O)∙hm−2, respectively; Si0 and Si1 represent silicon application rates of 0 and 90 kg(SiO2)∙hm−2, respectively. Different lowercase letters indicate significant differences among treatments at P<0.05 level.

    Figure  5.  Effect of combined application of potassium and silicon fertilizers on yield of different flax varieties

    表  1  钾硅肥配施对胡麻不同生育时期茎秆木质素含量影响的方差分析(P值)

    Table  1.   P values in variance analysis of the effects of potassium and silicon fertilizers on lignin content of stems at different growth stages of different flax varieties

    处理 Treatment分茎期 Branching现蕾期 Budding盛花期 Anthesis青果期 Kernel成熟期 Maturity
    品种 Variety (V)0.1150.0860.032*0.0830.386
    钾肥 Potassium fertilizer (K)0.027*0.049*0.010**0.000**0.035*
    硅肥 Silicon fertilizer (Si)0.9130.3450.4810.1090.103
    V×K0.5310.3550.9400.6730.795
    V×Si0.8560.4080.7000.9740.755
    K×Si0.010**0.011*0.2820.1140.443
    V×K×Si0.032*0.1530.9870.8490.676
      *: P<0.05; **: P<0.01.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  钾硅肥配施对胡麻不同生育时期茎秆木质素合成相关酶活性影响的方差分析(P值)

    Table  2.   P values in variance analysis of the effects of potassium and silicon fertilizers on lignin metabolism-related enzymes activities of stems at different growth stages of different flax varieties

    酶 Enzyme处理 Treatment分茎期 Branching现蕾期 Budding盛花期 Anthesis青果期 Kernel
    苯丙氨酸解氨酶
    Phenylalnine ammonialyase (PAL)
    品种 Variety (V)0.6000.3310.1660.003**
    钾肥 Potassium fertilizer (K)0.000**0.000**0.000**0.000**
    硅肥 Silicon fertilizer (Si)0.5520.2190.4170.039*
    V×K0.002**0.2820.000**0.042*
    V×Si0.5840.2100.5230.003**
    K×Si0.000**0.000**0.000**0.000**
    V×K×Si0.0670.5420.6160.012*
    4-香豆酸: CoA连接酶
    4-coumaric acid: COA ligase (4CL)
    品种 Variety (V)0.001**0.020*0.001**0.011*
    钾肥 Potassium fertilizer (K)0.000**0.000**0.011*0.004**
    硅肥 Silicon fertilizer (Si)0.010**0.4030.1640.213
    V×K0.1070.0720.0800.104
    V×Si0.7880.4090.1040.662
    K×Si0.000**0.002**0.002**0.010**
    V×K×Si0.1040.7550.033*0.646
    肉桂醇脱氢酶
    Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD)
    品种 Variety (V)0.8000.036*0.011*0.171
    钾肥 Potassium fertilizer (K)0.000**0.000**0.000**0.000**
    硅肥 Silicon fertilizer (Si)0.7710.8900.001**0.118
    V×K0.000**0.0590.0930.000**
    V×Si0.1130.0540.6100.000**
    K×Si0.000**0.000**0.011*0.000**
    V×K×Si0.0590.048*0.2370.001**
      *: P<0.05; **: P<0.01.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  胡麻不同生育时期茎秆木质素含量和代谢相关酶活性的相关系数

    Table  3.   Correlation coefficients between lignin content and its metabolism-related enzymes activities in flax stem at different growth stages


    Enzyme
    木质素 Lignin
    分茎期
    Branching
    现蕾期
    Budding
    盛花期
    Anthesis
    青果期
    Kernel
    苯丙氨酸解氨酶 Phenylalnine ammonialyase (PAL) 0.427** 0.535** 0.347* −0.228
    4-香豆酸: CoA连接酶 4-coumaric acid:COA ligase (4CL) 0.257 0.421* −0.269 −0.015
    肉桂醇脱氢酶 Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) 0.393* 0.451** 0.502** 0.402*
      *: P<0.05; **: P<0.01.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  钾硅肥配施对胡麻不同生育时期茎秆抗折力影响的方差分析(P值)

    Table  4.   P value in variance analysis of the effects of potassium and silicon fertilizers on stem breaking resistance of different flax varieties

    处理 Treatment现蕾期 Budding盛花期 Anthesis青果期 Kernel成熟期 Maturity
    品种 Variety (V)0.001**0.001**0.001**0.005**
    钾肥 Potassium fertilizer (K)0.002**0.000**0.000**0.019*
    硅肥 Silicon fertilizer (Si)0.0660.000**0.000**0.067
    V×K0.022*0.000**0.010**0.045*
    V×Si0.0750.6600.001**0.016*
    K×Si0.000**0.000**0.000**0.009**
    V×K×Si0.001**0.002**0.037*0.024*
      *: P<0.05; **: P<0.01.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  钾硅肥处理对胡麻不同生育时期抗倒伏指数影响的方差分析(P值)

    Table  5.   P value in variance analysis of the effects of potassium and silicon fertilizers on lodging resistance index at different growth stages of different flax varieties

    处理 Treatment现蕾期 Budding盛花期 Anthesis青果期 Kernel成熟期 Maturity
    品种 Variety (V)0.000**0.000**0.000**0.000**
    钾肥 Potassium fertilizer (K)0.0720.045*0.000**0.406
    硅肥 Silicon fertilizer (Si)0.1040.002**0.1290.756
    V×K0.2660.8500.044*0.424
    V×Si0.2070.2020.028*0.146
    K×Si0.6850.016*0.046*0.569
    V×K×Si0.1480.016*0.0610.693
      *: P<0.05; **: P<0.01.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  胡麻不同生育时期茎秆木质素含量与抗倒伏能力相关分析

    Table  6.   Correlation analysis of lignin content and lodging resistance indexes in flax stem at different growth stages

    抗倒伏指标
    Lodging resistance properties
    木质素 Lignin
    现蕾期 Budding盛花期 Anthesis青果期 Kernel成熟期 Maturity
    抗折力 Stem breaking resistance0.495**0.726**0.490**0.222
    抗倒伏指数 Lodging resistance index0.3220.720**0.555**0.091
    倒伏率 Lodging rate−0.556**−0.314
      **: P<0.01.
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-11-29
  • 录用日期:  2022-03-01
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-04-01
  • 刊出日期:  2022-09-09

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