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华北平原小麦新型耕作施肥播种方式增产增效研究

徐萍 杨宪杰 冯佐龙 孙彦玲 杨震 张西群 邓学斌 史家益 张正斌

徐萍, 杨宪杰, 冯佐龙, 孙彦玲, 杨震, 张西群, 邓学斌, 史家益, 张正斌. 华北平原小麦新型耕作施肥播种方式增产增效研究[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2022, 30(5): 831−841 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210851
引用本文: 徐萍, 杨宪杰, 冯佐龙, 孙彦玲, 杨震, 张西群, 邓学斌, 史家益, 张正斌. 华北平原小麦新型耕作施肥播种方式增产增效研究[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2022, 30(5): 831−841 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210851
XU P, YANG X J, FENG Z L, SUN Y L, YANG Z, ZHANG X Q, DENG X B, SHI J Y, ZHANG Z B. Yield- and efficiency-increasing effect of new tillage-fertilization-sowing method on wheat in the North China Plain[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2022, 30(5): 831−841 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210851
Citation: XU P, YANG X J, FENG Z L, SUN Y L, YANG Z, ZHANG X Q, DENG X B, SHI J Y, ZHANG Z B. Yield- and efficiency-increasing effect of new tillage-fertilization-sowing method on wheat in the North China Plain[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2022, 30(5): 831−841 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210851

华北平原小麦新型耕作施肥播种方式增产增效研究

doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210851
基金项目: 河北省重点研发计划项目(20326403D)资助
详细信息
    作者简介:

    徐萍, 主要研究方向为粮食丰产增效科技创新。E-mail: xuping@sjziam.ac.cn

    通讯作者:

    张正斌, 主要研究方向为黄淮海现代农业。E-mail: zzb@sjziam.ac.cn

  • 中图分类号: S513

Yield- and efficiency-increasing effect of new tillage-fertilization-sowing method on wheat in the North China Plain

Funds: The study was supported by the Key Research and Development Program of Hebei Province (20326403D).
More Information
  • 摘要: 华北平原是我国夏玉米-冬小麦主产区, 但长期大面积免耕播种玉米和旋耕播种小麦, 导致耕层普遍变浅, 增产增效幅度下降, 同时华北平原又是地下水严重超采区和现代节水农业发展重点区。为了打破犁底层、提高水分和养分等资源利用效率, 减少耕种作业次数、降低生产成本并增产增效, 本研究采用裂区试验设计, 主区为前茬设置免耕玉米播种和遁耕分层施肥玉米播种2个处理, 免耕玉米播种主区里设置人工施肥-旋耕-小麦条播(T1)、人工施肥-旋耕深松-小麦条播(T2) 2个副区; 玉米遁耕分层施肥处理主区后茬为人工施肥-旋耕-小麦条播(T3)、旋耕深松分层施肥小麦宽幅匀播(T4) 2个副区处理, 在分蘖期、拔节期、开花期、灌浆期和成熟期, 对小麦生长发育、干物质积累和产量构成性状进行了调查和差异比较; 最后对小麦水分利用效率和偏氮肥生产力、玉米-小麦周年总产及产出/投入比进行了分析。结果表明, T4处理模式明显能够降低0~40 cm耕层土壤容重, 增加深层土壤含水率, 同时优化了耕层养分分布, 增加了小麦株高、分蘖、地上部干物质重量、0~40 cm耕层的根干重, 进而提高了单位面积穗数和穗粒数, 实现节水高产; 籽粒产量表现为T4 (8333.75 kg∙hm−2)>T3 (8222.63 kg∙hm−2)>T2 (7778.17 kg∙hm−2)>T1 (7000.35 kg∙hm−2); T4、T3、T2处理分别比T1处理显著增产19.05%、17.46%和11.1%; 提高了水分利用效率和偏氮肥生产力; T4处理累计全年粮食总产达19 469.7 kg∙hm−2, 超过了吨粮田(15 000 kg∙hm−2), 产出/投入比达3.76, 是华北平原玉米-小麦周年节水绿色提质增产增效的耕作模式。本文揭示了不同耕作施肥播种条件下, 小麦产量形成的生长发育特征和增产要素及玉米-小麦周年增产增效特征。建议加快在华北平原示范推广“小麦旋耕深松分层施肥宽幅匀播技术”。
  • 图  1  研究区小麦生育期降雨量(2020—2021年)

    Figure  1.  Precipitation during wheat growth season of 2020−2021 in the study area

    图  2  不同耕作处理土壤容重(A)和土壤含水率(B)差异比较

    T1: 玉米免耕播种+人工施肥-小麦旋耕-条播; T2: 玉米免耕播种+人工施肥-小麦旋耕深松一体机-条播; T3: 玉米遁耕分层施肥+人工施肥-小麦旋耕-条播; T4: 玉米遁耕分层施肥+小麦旋耕深松分层施肥宽幅匀播。不同小写字母表示同一土层4个处理间差异显著(P<0.05)。T1: no-tillage seeding of corn, and artificial fertilization-rotary tillage and drill sowing of wheat; T2: no-tillage seeding of corn, and artificial fertilization-rotary tillage-deep loosening and drill sowing of wheat; T3: deep tillage-delamination fertilization and sowing of corn, and artificial fertilization-rotary tillage and strip seeding of wheat; T4: deep tillage-delamination fertilization and sowing of corn, and rotary tillage-deep loosening-delamination fertilization and wide uniform seeding of wheat. Different lowercase letters mean significances among four treatments in the same soil layer at P<0.05 level.

    Figure  2.  Comparison of soil bulk density (A) and soil water content (B) under different tillage treatments

    图  3  不同耕作处理在不同土层中全氮(A)、碱解氮(B)、速效磷(C)和速效钾(D)含量差异比较

    T1: 玉米免耕播种+人工施肥-小麦旋耕-条播; T2: 玉米免耕播种+人工施肥-小麦旋耕深松一体机-条播; T3: 玉米遁耕分层施肥+人工施肥-小麦旋耕-条播; T4: 玉米遁耕分层施肥+小麦旋耕深松分层施肥宽幅匀播。不同小写字母表示同一处理两个土层间差异显著(P<0.05)。T1: no-tillage seeding of corn, and artificial fertilization-rotary tillage and drill sowing of wheat; T2: no-tillage seeding of corn, and artificial fertilization-rotary tillage-deep loosening and drill sowing of wheat; T3: deep tillage-delamination fertilization and sowing of corn, and artificial fertilization-rotary tillage and strip seeding of wheat; T4: deep tillage-delamination fertilization and sowing of corn, and rotary tillage-deep loosening-delamination fertilization and wide uniform seeding of wheat. Different lowercase letters mean significances between two soil layers in the same treatment at P<0.05 level.

    Figure  3.  Contents of total nitrogen (A), alkali-hydrolysis nitrogen (B), available phosphorus (C) and available potassium (D) under different tillage treatments

    图  4  不同耕作处理下小麦不同生育期株高(A)、分蘖数(B)、地上部干物质量(C)和根干重(D)的差异

    T1: 玉米免耕播种+人工施肥-小麦旋耕-条播; T2: 玉米免耕播种+人工施肥-小麦旋耕深松一体机-条播; T3: 玉米遁耕分层施肥+人工施肥-小麦旋耕-条播; T4: 玉米遁耕分层施肥+小麦旋耕深松分层施肥宽幅匀播。不同小写字母表示同一生育期4个处理间差异显著(P<0.05)。T1: no-tillage seeding of corn, and artificial fertilization-rotary tillage and drill sowing of wheat; T2: no-tillage seeding of corn, and artificial fertilization-rotary tillage-deep loosening and drill sowing of wheat; T3: deep tillage-delamination fertilization and sowing of corn, and artificial fertilization-rotary tillage and strip seeding of wheat; T4: deep tillage-delamination fertilization and sowing of corn, and rotary tillage-deep loosening-delamination fertilization and wide uniform seeding of wheat. TS: tillering stage; JS: jointing stage; FS: flowering stage; FP: filling period; MS: mature stage. Different lowercase letters mean significances among four treatments in the same growth stage at P<0.05 level.

    Figure  4.  Plant height (A), tillage number (B), shoot dry weight (C) and root dry weight (D) of wheat at different growth stages under different tillage treatments

    图  5  不同耕作处理下小麦株高(A)、穗数(B)、每穗小穗数(C)、穗粒数(D)、千粒重(E)、生物学产量(F)、产量(G)和收获指数(H)的差异

    T1: 玉米免耕播种+人工施肥-小麦旋耕-条播; T2: 玉米免耕播种+人工施肥-小麦旋耕深松一体机-条播; T3: 玉米遁耕分层施肥+人工施肥-小麦旋耕-条播; T4: 玉米遁耕分层施肥+小麦旋耕深松分层施肥宽幅匀播。不同小写字母表示不同处理间差异显著(P<0.05)。T1: no-tillage seeding of corn, and artificial fertilization-rotary tillage and drill sowing of wheat; T2: no-tillage seeding of corn, and artificial fertilization-rotary tillage-deep loosening and drill sowing of wheat; T3: deep tillage-delamination fertilization and sowing of corn, and artificial fertilization-rotary tillage and strip seeding of wheat; T4: deep tillage-delamination fertilization and sowing of corn, and rotary tillage-deep loosening-delamination fertilization and wide uniform seeding of wheat. Different lowercase letters mean significances among different treatments at P<0.05 level.

    Figure  5.  Plant height (A), spike number (B), spikelets per spike (C), grain number per spike (D), 1000-grain weight (E), biomass weight (F), yield (G) and harvest index (H) of wheat under different tillage treatments

    图  6  不同耕作处理下小麦水分利用效率(WUE, A)、氮肥偏生产力(PFPN, B)、玉米+小麦总产量(C)和产投比(D)的差异

    T1: 玉米免耕播种+人工施肥-小麦旋耕-条播; T2: 玉米免耕播种+人工施肥-小麦旋耕深松一体机-条播; T3: 玉米遁耕分层施肥+人工施肥-小麦旋耕-条播; T4: 玉米遁耕分层施肥+小麦旋耕深松分层施肥宽幅匀播。不同小写字母表示不同处理间差异显著(P<0.05)。T1: no-tillage seeding of corn, and artificial fertilization-rotary tillage and drill sowing of wheat; T2: no-tillage seeding of corn, and artificial fertilization-rotary tillage-deep loosening and drill sowing of wheat; T3: deep tillage-delamination fertilization and sowing of corn, and artificial fertilization-rotary tillage and strip seeding of wheat; T4: deep tillage-delamination fertilization and sowing of corn, and rotary tillage-deep loosening-delamination fertilization and wide uniform seeding of wheat. Different lowercase letters mean significances among different treatments at P<0.05 level.

    Figure  6.  Water use efficiency (WUE, A), partial factor productivity of nitrogen (PFPN, B), maize+wheat yield (C) and rate of output and input (D) of wheat under different tillage treatments

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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2021-09-20
  • 录用日期:  2021-11-20
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-01-20
  • 刊出日期:  2022-05-18

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