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稻虾种养对水稻产量和粮食安全的影响

倪明理 邓凯 张文宇 尚永青 魏凤 袁鹏丽 李准 樊丹 曹凑贵 汪金平

倪明理, 邓凯, 张文宇, 尚永青, 魏凤, 袁鹏丽, 李准, 樊丹, 曹凑贵, 汪金平. 稻虾种养对水稻产量和粮食安全的影响[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2022, 30(8): 1293−1300 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210891
引用本文: 倪明理, 邓凯, 张文宇, 尚永青, 魏凤, 袁鹏丽, 李准, 樊丹, 曹凑贵, 汪金平. 稻虾种养对水稻产量和粮食安全的影响[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2022, 30(8): 1293−1300 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210891
NI M L, DENG K, ZHANG W Y, SHANG Y Q, WEI F, YUAN P L, LI Z, FAN D, CAO C G, WANG J P. Effects of rice-crayfish coculture on rice yield and food security[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2022, 30(8): 1293−1300 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210891
Citation: NI M L, DENG K, ZHANG W Y, SHANG Y Q, WEI F, YUAN P L, LI Z, FAN D, CAO C G, WANG J P. Effects of rice-crayfish coculture on rice yield and food security[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2022, 30(8): 1293−1300 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210891

稻虾种养对水稻产量和粮食安全的影响

doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210891
基金项目: 中央高校基本科研业务费专项(2662019FW010)和湖北省农业科技创新行动专项(2018skjcx01)资助
详细信息
    作者简介:

    倪明理, 研究方向为作物栽培与耕作学。E-mail: 573683904@qq.com

    通讯作者:

    汪金平, 主要研究方向是稻田生态。E-mail: wangjp@mail.hzau.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: S511; S966.1

Effects of rice-crayfish coculture on rice yield and food security

Funds: This study was supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (2662019FW010) and the Special Action for Agricultural Science and Technology Innovation of Hubei Province (2018skjcx01).
More Information
  • 摘要: 稻虾种养模式是指将小龙虾的养殖与水稻种植相结合的一种复合种养模式, 该模式因其较高的经济效益, 近些年在全国发展迅速。在稻虾种养模式大面积推广的背景下, 有关稻虾种养模式对粮食产量安全的问题受到关注。本文通过多年定位试验、不同生态区农户调查和湖北省近10年统计年鉴资料, 对稻虾种养稻田的粮食安全问题进行分析。结果表明: 1)稻虾种养提高了农民的种稻积极性, 扩大了水稻种植面积, 增加了水稻总产量。稻虾种养面积与水稻种植面积呈显著正相关, 稻虾主产区湖北省潜江市、荆州市和湖北省的水稻种植面积与10年前相比分别提高77.77%、16.23%和12.20%, 水稻总产量分别提高68.12%、16.61%和20.49%。同时近10年湖北省夏收粮食(小麦等)产量维持稳定。2)湖北稻虾产区养殖沟占比(G)平均值为13.42%, G在一定程度上会影响水稻产量。在不考虑G情况下, 与传统稻田单作相比, 稻虾种养水稻产量提高17.63%。当G≤10%时, 稻虾种养水稻产量略低于传统单作, 差异不显著, 但是10%<G<20%和G≥20%条件下, 水稻产量显著降低, 分别降低18.19%和34.81%。3)稻虾种养发展区存在优劣势差异。水稻、小龙虾产量的表现在江汉平原、鄂东沿江平原优于鄂中北丘陵。因此按照G≤10%的标准规范稻虾模式田间工程建设, 坚持因地制宜地发展稻虾模式, 可在维持稻虾收益的同时保持水稻粮食安全, 是确保我国稻虾产业持续健康发展的重要保证。
  • 图  1  2020年不同省份小龙虾总产量及其占比

    数据来源于《中国小龙虾产业发展报告》(2021)。

    Figure  1.  Total crayfish yield and its proportion in different provinces in 2020

    Date sources is China Crayfish Industry Development Report 2021.

    图  2  2019年湖北省稻虾主产区稻虾面积占水稻种植面积比例

    数据来源于《湖北省农村统计年鉴》(2011—2020), 监利、石首和洪湖属于荆州市。

    Figure  2.  Proportions of rice-crayfish area in the main rice-crayfish producing areas of Hubei Province in 2019

    Date sources is Hubei Rural Statistical Yearbook (2011—2020). Jianli, Shishou and Honghu belong to Jingzhou City.

    图  3  湖北省稻虾主产区水稻种植面积与稻虾种养面积关系(2010—2019年)

    数据来源于《湖北省农村统计年鉴》(2011—2020)。

    Figure  3.  Relationship between rice planting area and rice-crayfish area in the main rice-crayfish producing areas of Hubei Province from 2010 to 2019

    Date source is Hubei Rural Statistical Yearbook (2011−2020).

    图  4  稻虾种养田养殖沟比例(G)与水稻产量关系(A)和不同养殖沟比例下水稻的产量(B)

    Figure  4.  Relationship between proportion of culture ditch (G) and rice yield (A) and rice yield under different proportions of culture ditch (B) of the rice-crayfish field

    表  1  湖北省稻虾主产区近10年水稻种植面积与总产量

    Table  1.   Rice planting areas and total yields in the main rice-crayfish producing areas of Hubei Province in recent 10 years

    年份

    Year
    潜江 Qianjiang荆州 Jingzhou湖北 Hubei
    水稻面积

    Rice area (×103 hm2)
    水稻总产量

    Total rice yield (t)
    水稻面积

    Rice area (×103 hm2)
    水稻总产量

    Total rice yield (t)
    水稻面积

    Rice area (×103 hm2)
    水稻总产量

    Total rice yield (t)
    201033.06288 400391.893 221 3182038.1715 578 100
    201130.62314 127393.093 102 7532036.1716 169 100
    201234.97346 665413.883 162 4732017.8816 513 800
    201338.03369 481423.753 276 5482101.1516 766 358
    201440.29381 463433.823 340 7812143.9517 294 700
    201536.37365 252431.803 403 4702188.4618 106 900
    201635.20310 897419.003 016 4992130.9716 935 179
    201759.06504 400485.073 931 8062368.0719 271 639
    201860.55515 700483.063 970 2372390.9919 656 224
    201958.77484 848455.513 756 4142286.7518 770 598
      数据来源于《湖北省农村统计年鉴》(2011—2020)。Date sources is Hubei Rural Statistical Yearbook (2011−2020).
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  湖北省稻虾主产区近10年夏粮面积与夏粮总产量

    Table  2.   Summer grain areas and total summer grain yields in the main rice-crayfish producing areas of Hubei Province in recent 10 years

    年限
    Year
    潜江 Qianjiang荆州 Jingzhou湖北 Hubei
    夏粮面积
    Summer grain
    area (×103 hm2)
    夏粮总产量
    Total yield of summer
    grain (t)
    夏粮面积
    Summer grain
    area (×103 hm2)
    夏粮总产量
    Total yield of summer
    grain (t)
    夏粮面积
    Summer grain
    area (×103 hm2)
    夏粮总产量
    Total yield of summer
    grain (t)
    201028.5691 420122.08404 4881253.754 206 200
    201129.99108 052128.10409 5271321.334 258 300
    201236.83111 472134.56428 3651363.194 474 400
    201330.09113 704136.05476 1001400.605 010 000
    201429.96110 600135.79474 6001389.925 056 000
    201529.94104 200136.29450 4001380.855 044 500
    201630.31106 100138.04458 8001392.935 086 650
    201730.63103 942184.77532 3981348.504 882 443
    201829.9987 700175.76530 8981304.264 675 956
    201928.2584 617171.17522 0941266.504 569 991
      数据来源于《湖北省农村统计年鉴》(2011—2020)。Date sources is Hubei Rural Statistical Yearbook (2011−2020).
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  稻虾长期定位试验各年水稻产量

    Table  3.   Rice yield in each year of long-term rice-crayfish experimental site t∙hm−2 

    年限

    Year
    稻虾种养(不含养殖沟)

    Rice-crayfish (excluding culture ditch)
    稻虾种养(含养殖沟)

    Rice-crayfish (including culture ditch)
    稻田单作

    Rice-monoculture
    20169.65±0.83a7.61±0.74c8.23±1.89b
    20178.43±0.92a6.64±0.88c6.94±0.97b
    20189.51±1.01a7.49±1.03c8.02±1.21b
    20199.09±1.31a7.16±1.46c7.99±0.87b
    20206.56±1.17a5.13±1.33c5.56±0.47b
      同行不同小写字母表示不同处理间在P<0.05水平差异显著, 2020年产量偏低的主要原因是连续降雨的影响。Different lowercase letters in the same line indicate significant differences at P<0.05 level. The main reason for the low output in 2020 is the continuous rainfall.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  2018年湖北省稻虾产区水稻和小龙虾产量

    Table  4.   Rice and crayfish yields in the rice-crayfish producing areas of Hubei Province in 2018

    地区
    Region
    水稻产量 Rice yield小龙虾产量
    Crayfish yield
    稻虾种养田 Rice-crayfish传统单作田 Rice monoculture
    t∙hm−2 
    鄂东沿江平原 Plain along the river in East Hubei6.72±1.32a7.02±1.41a1.32±0.70
    鄂中北丘陵 Hills in Central and North Hubei4.83±1.34b7.37±1.24a1.36±0.77
    江汉平原 Jianghan Plain6.12±1.54b7.66±1.61a2.23±0.97
      同行不同字母表示差异显著(P<0.05), 水稻产量是包含养殖沟面积条件下的实际产量, 养殖沟占比在鄂东沿江平原、鄂中北丘陵、江汉平原分别为10.05%、25.63%和17.03%。Different letters in the same line indicate significant differences at P<0.05 level. Rice yield refers to the actual yield under the condition of including the area of culture ditch. The proportion of aquaculture ditches in the plain along the river in East Hubei, the hills of Central and North Hubei and the Jianghan Plain is 10.05%, 25.63% and 17.03%, respectively.
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2021-12-26
  • 录用日期:  2022-02-14
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-03-01
  • 刊出日期:  2022-08-01

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