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草地生态系统承载力概念、方法及关键问题

鄢玲艳 孔令桥 张路 欧阳志云 胡金明

鄢玲艳, 孔令桥, 张路, 欧阳志云, 胡金明. 草地生态系统承载力概念、方法及关键问题[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2022, 30(8): 1228−1237 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210905
引用本文: 鄢玲艳, 孔令桥, 张路, 欧阳志云, 胡金明. 草地生态系统承载力概念、方法及关键问题[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2022, 30(8): 1228−1237 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210905
YAN L Y, KONG L Q, ZHAGN L, OUYANG Z Y, HU J M. The definition, methods and key issues of grassland ecosystem carrying capacity[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2022, 30(8): 1228−1237 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210905
Citation: YAN L Y, KONG L Q, ZHAGN L, OUYANG Z Y, HU J M. The definition, methods and key issues of grassland ecosystem carrying capacity[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2022, 30(8): 1228−1237 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210905

草地生态系统承载力概念、方法及关键问题

doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210905
基金项目: 第二次青藏高原综合科学考察研究(2019QZKK0308)和国家自然科学基金项目(41901257)资助
详细信息
    作者简介:

    鄢玲艳, 主要从事青藏高原草地生态系统承载力研究。E-mail: yanlingyan10@163.com

    通讯作者:

    胡金明, 主要研究方向为关键生物多样性要素、生态功能与过程的空间分布格局。E-mail: hujm@ynu.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: S8-05

The definition, methods and key issues of grassland ecosystem carrying capacity

Funds: This study was supported by the Second Tibetan Plateau Scientific Expedition and Research (2019QZKK0308), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41901257).
More Information
  • 摘要: 草地是中国面积最大的陆地生态系统, 具有重要的生态功能, 是牧民赖以生存和发展的物质基础。同时草地生态系统脆弱敏感, 退化严重, 对生态安全和经济发展造成威胁。草地生态系统承载力的研究对实现草畜平衡和草地可持续利用、维护我国生态脆弱区生态安全具有重要意义。本文对草地生态系统承载力相关概念及发展进行了梳理, 提出了草地生态系统承载力评估概念框架。在总结现有草地生态系统承载力评估方法基础上, 重点分析了目前草地生态系统承载力研究方法以及量化模型的不足, 提出了未来需要进一步加强研究的领域和方向。在草地生态系统承载力评估方法上, 当前主要采用载畜量进行量化, 现有方法大多根据牧草生产力及农副产品价格、牧草产量、草地净初级生产力或植被指数估算, 现存问题主要有: 1)产草量受多因素影响, 不同研究区间差异较大, 数据难以准确获取或估算; 2)忽略了野生动物、病虫害导致的牧草损失量; 3)实际载畜量折算未考虑牲畜体重、年龄大小; 4)缺乏较完备的多因素整合模型与预测预警模型。未来应在以下方面深入研究: 1)构建完善的草地生态系统承载力研究基础理论体系; 2)完善草地生态系统承载力评价指标体系, 优化评价模型; 3)加强参数的动态监测和标准化; 4)建立草地生态系统承载力研究预测预警机制, 科学确定草地生态系统承载阈值。
  • 图  1  草地生态系统承载力评估概念框架

    Figure  1.  Conceptual framework for assessing the carrying capacity of grassland ecosystems

    表  1  草地理论载畜量模型

    Table  1.   Theoretical livestock capacity of grassland

    分类
    Classification
    理论载畜量计算模型
    Theoretical livestock capacity
    参数
    Parameter
    文献
    Reference
    根据牧草生产
    力及农副产品
    价格估算
    Estimates based
    on forage
    productivity,
    and agricultural
    and sideline
    product prices
    $A=\dfrac{\displaystyle \sum _{k=1}^{{n} }{ {N} }_{k} }{365\times {I}_{\rm{s} } }$ A: 合理载畜量; ${N} _{k} $: 在目标区域中饲草资源k的净产量; Is: 羊单位日食量(1.8 kg); 365: 放牧天数; n: 草地种类。
    A: carrying capacity; ${N} _{k} $: net yield of forage resources k in the target area; Is: daily food consumption of sheep unit (1.8 kg); 365: grazing days; n: grassland types.
    [19]
    根据牧草产量
    估算
    Estimates based
    on pasture yields
    $\begin{array}{l} { { {A} }_{\rm{w} } } =\dfrac{ {\left( { {Y_{\rm{w} } } \times I \times {N_1} \times {E_{\rm{w} } } \times { { {W} }_{\rm{w} } } + Y \times {N_{2} } + F \times {N_3} } \right)} }{ {1.8\;{\rm{kg} } \times {D_{\rm{w} } } \times H} }\\ { { {A} }_{\rm{s} } } = \dfrac{ {\left( { { { {Y} }_{\rm{s} } } \times { {I} } \times { { {N} }_4} \times { { {E} }_{\rm{s} } } \times { { {W} }_{\rm{s} } } + { {F} } \times { { {N} }_3} } \right)} }{ {1.8\;{\rm{kg} } \times { { {D} }_{\rm{s} } } }}\end{array}$ AwAs: 冷季和暖季草地理论载畜量; YwYs: 冷季和暖季牧草产量; I: 牧草牲畜可采食率; N1: 冬春草地折算标准青干草系数; EwEs: 冷季和暖季草地生态功能保护系数; WwWs: 冷季和暖季气候风险系数; Y: 贮备青干草总量; N2: 贮备青干草折算标准青干草系数; F: 贮备精饲料总量; N3: 精饲料折算标准青干草系数; 1.8 kg: 羊单位日食量; H: 牲畜冬春饥饿掉膘最大耐受率; N4: 夏秋草地牧草折算标准青干草系数。
    Aw and As: carrying capacity of grassland in cold and warm seasons; Yw and Ys: forage yield in cold and warm season; I: feed intake rate of pasture livestock; N1: conversion coefficient of standard green hay of grassland in winter and spring; Ew and Es: protection coefficient of grassland ecological function in cold and warm seasons; Ww and Ws: climate risk coefficients in cold and warm seasons; Y: total amount of green hay in reserve; N2: conversion coefficient of standard green hay reserve green hay; F: total amount of stored concentrated feed; N3: conversion coefficient of standard green hay of concentrated feed; 1.8 kg: daily food consumption of sheep unit; H: maximum tolerance rate of livestock losing weight due to hunger in winter and spring; N4: conversion coefficient of standard green hay of pasture in summer and autumn.
    [30]
    $\begin{array}{l} {A}=\dfrac{ {{G} }_{j}\times {w} }{{I}\times {D} } \\{{G} }_{{j} }={\displaystyle\sum }_{{i}=1}^{3}{{m} }_{i}\times {{p} }_{_i}\end{array}$ Gj: 第 j 个区县草地产草总量; mi: 第 i 类草地的面积; pi: 第 i 类草地平均产草量(人工草地15 000 , 天然草地5400, 其他草地4000, 单位 kg∙hm−2); I: 标准羊单位日食量; D: 放牧天数; w: 牧草占饲料总量的比重(20%)。
    Gj: total amount of grassland in different districts; mi: area of type i grassland; pi: average grass yield of type i grassland (artificial grassland 15 000, natural grassland 5400, other grassland 4000, unit: kg∙hm−2); I: daily food consumption of sheep unit; D: grazing days; w: proportion of forage grass in total feed (20%).
    [31-34]
    根据NPP、
    NDVI估算
    Estimates
    according to
    NPP or NDVI
    ${A}=\dfrac{\mathrm{N}\mathrm{P}\mathrm{P}\times {a}\times {b} }{\left(1+{{c} }_{_i}\right)\left(1-{d}\right)\times {I}\times {D} }$ A: 理论载畜量; NPP: 草地净初级生产力; a: 牧草利用率(0.8); b: 可食用比例(0.6); ci: 第i种草地类型的根冠比; d: 含水率(14%); D: 放牧天数; I: 标准绵羊单位的采食量(1.5 kg)。
    A: carrying capacity; NPP: net primary productivity of grassland; a: forage utilization rate (0.8); b: edible ratio (0.6); ci: root-shoot ratio of type i grassland; d: water content (14%); D: days of grazing; I: daily food consumption of sheep unit (1.5 kg).
    [6]
    $\begin{array}{l}{A}=\dfrac{{H}\times {{G} }_{i}\times {C}\times {E} }{{L}\times {D} }\\{H}=\dfrac{\rm{NPP} }{{S}(1+{{a} }_{i})}\end{array}$
    A: 理论载畜量; H: 全年干草产量; Gi: 第i种草地类型的牧草利用率; C: 草地可利用率(92%); E: 草地可食牧草比率(80%); L: 标准羊日食量; D: 放牧天数; S: 草地生物量转成NPP的转换系数(0.45); ai: 第i种草地类型地下与地上生物量的系数。
    A: carrying capacity; H: annual hay yield; Gi: forage utilization rate of type i grassland; C: utilization rate of grassland (92%); E: edible rate of forage grass (80%); L: daily food consumption of sheep unit; D: days of grazing; S: conversion coefficient of grassland biomass to NPP (0.45); ai: coefficient of underground and overground biomass of type i grassland.
    [35]
    $\begin{array}{l}{A}=\dfrac{{Y}\times {E}\times {U} }{{I}\times {T} }\\{Y}=-47.021+440.21{X}\end{array}$ A: 理论载畜量; Y: 产草量; X: NDVI值; E: 可食用饲料比例; U: 放牧率; I: 标准羊单位日食量; T: 放牧天数。
    A: carrying capacity; Y: forage yield; X: NDVI; E: edible feed ratio; U: grazing rate; I: daily food consumption of sheep unit; T: days of grazing.
    [36]
    ${A}=\dfrac{0.5\times \text{UNPP}\times {a}\times {b} }{{I}\times 365}$ A: 载畜量单位(羊单位); 0.5: 地上部NPP/总NPP的值; b: 高寒草原标准干草折算系数(1); a: 高寒草地利用率(50%); I: 羊单位日食量; UNPP: 草地可被人类利用的NPP; 365: 放牧天数。
    A: carrying capacity; 0.5: aboveground NPP/NPP; b: conversion coefficient of standard hay of alpine steppe; a: utilization rate of alpine grassland; I: daily food consumption of sheep unit; UNPP: NPP of grassland that can be used by human beings; 365: days of grazing.
    [37]
    根据NPP、
    NDVI估算
    Estimates
    according to
    NPP or NDVI
    ${A}=\dfrac{ {{B} }_{i}\times \mathrm{N}\mathrm{P}\mathrm{P}\times {{C} }_{i}\times {{D} }_{i} }{{E}\times 0.45\times 365}$ A: 理论载畜量; Bi: 第i种草地类型可利用面积; NPP: 草地净初级生产力; Ci: 第i种草地类型牧草地上生物量占总生物量的比例; Di: i种草地牧草利用率; E: 绵羊日食量(2 kg); 0.45: 植物以碳形式植物生物量的转换系数; 365: 放牧天数。
    A: carrying capacity; Bi: available area of type i grassland; NPP: net primary productivity of grassland; Ci: proportion of overground biomass in total biomass of type i grassland; Di: utilization rate of type i grassland; E: daily food consumption of sheep unit; 0.45: conversion coefficient of plant biomass in the form of carbon; 365: grazing days.
    [38]
    ${A}=\dfrac{ {{Y} }_{i}\times {{K} }_{1}\times {{K} }_{2}\times {{K} }_{3} }{{I}\times {D} }\\{Y}=7571.3{{x} }^{3}-1025{{x} }^{2}+4906.4 {x}-727.42$ A: 理论载畜量; Yi: 第i种草地类型的地上生物量; K1: 可利用草地系数; K2: 可食牧草系数; K3: 草地利用系数; I: 标准羊单位日食量(2 kg); D: 放牧天数(365); x: NDVI。
    A: carrying capacity; Yi: overground biomass of type i grassland; K1: available grassland coefficient; K2: edible pasture coefficient; K3: grassland utilization coefficient; I: daily food consumption of sheep unit; D: grazing days; x: NDVI.
    [39]
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  不同类型草地牧草利用率

    Table  2.   Forage utilization rates of different types of grassland

    草地类型
    Grassland type
    牧草利用率
    Forage utilization rate (%)
    平均牧草利用率
    Average forage utilization rate (%)
    高寒草甸 Alpine meadow50~55[27], 60~70[42], 45~50[43], 50[37,44], 65[45-46], 60[35]57
    高寒草原 Alpine steppe40~45[27], 50[35,37], 40[44]46
    温性草原 Temperate steppe45~50[27], 60~70[42], 40~60[45,47], 60[46], 50[35], 40[44]52
    温性草甸 Temperate meadow50~55[27,47], 65[45-46], 60[35], 50[44]57
    低地草甸 Low-land meadow50~55[27,42,47], 65[46]58
    山地草甸 Mountain meadow55~60[27,47], 60~65[42], 57[46]59
    荒漠草原 Desert grasslands35~45[27], 20~35[48], 40~50[45], 40[35], 38[38], 55[46]41
    草丛 Shrubby tussock50~60[27], 55[35]55
    沼泽 Marsh25~30[27,47], 42[46]35
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  我国不同区域牧草病虫害损失率

    Table  3.   Forage pest and disease loss rates in different areas of China

    研究区 Study area
    损失率 Loss rate (%)
    四川省 Sichuan Province川西北 Northwest Sichuan 16.77[54], 24.59[55]
    黑龙江省 Heilongjiang Province 40.57[56]
    辽宁省 Liaoning Province 16.78[57]
    内蒙古自治区 Inner Mongolia Municipality 鄂尔多斯 Ordos 12.30[58]
    甘肃省 Gansu Province 41.13[59]
    天祝县 Tianzhu County 5.98[60]
    玛曲县 Maqu County 28.57[61]
    古浪县 Gulang County 28[62]
    新疆维吾尔自治区 Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region 10[63]
    宁夏回族自治区
    Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region
    泾源县 Jingyuan County
    10~20[64]
    青海省 Qinghai Province
    50~80[65]
    海北藏族自治州
    Haibei Tibetan Autonomous
    Prefecture
    刚察县 Gangcha County 71[66]
    门源回族自治县
    Menyuan Hui Autonomous
    County
    37.58[66]
    黄河源区 Source area of the Yellow River 60~80[67]
    海南藏族自治州
    Tibetan Autonomous
    Prefecture of Hainan
    68.6[68]
    贵德县 Guide County
    69.36[69]
    黄南藏族自治州
    Tibetan Autonomous
    Prefecture of Huangnan
    河南蒙古族自治县
    Mongolian Autonomous County
    of Henan
    43[70]
    全国尺度 National scale 15[71]
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-12-22
  • 录用日期:  2022-01-22
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