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川中丘陵区不同播期玉米生育期气候资源及干旱特征分析

蓝天琼 李思锦 兰汉军 邓长春 杜霞 陈谋浩 崔世磊 袁继超 孔凡磊

蓝天琼, 李思锦, 兰汉军, 邓长春, 杜霞, 陈谋浩, 崔世磊, 袁继超, 孔凡磊. 川中丘陵区不同播期玉米生育期气候资源及干旱特征分析−以中江为例[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2022, 30(8): 1318−1327 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210906
引用本文: 蓝天琼, 李思锦, 兰汉军, 邓长春, 杜霞, 陈谋浩, 崔世磊, 袁继超, 孔凡磊. 川中丘陵区不同播期玉米生育期气候资源及干旱特征分析−以中江为例[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2022, 30(8): 1318−1327 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210906
LAN T Q, LI S J, LAN H J, DENG C C, DU X, CHEN M H, CUI S L, YUAN J C, KONG F L. Climatic resources and drought characteristics of maize sown in different dates in the hilly area of central Sichuan: A case study of Zhongjiang, Sichuan[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2022, 30(8): 1318−1327 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210906
Citation: LAN T Q, LI S J, LAN H J, DENG C C, DU X, CHEN M H, CUI S L, YUAN J C, KONG F L. Climatic resources and drought characteristics of maize sown in different dates in the hilly area of central Sichuan: A case study of Zhongjiang, Sichuan[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2022, 30(8): 1318−1327 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210906

川中丘陵区不同播期玉米生育期气候资源及干旱特征分析以中江为例

doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210906
基金项目: 四川省玉米创新团队项目(SCCXTD-2020-02)、国家现代农业产业技术体系建设专项(CARS-02-36)和国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFD0300307, 2017YFD0301704)资助
详细信息
    作者简介:

    蓝天琼, 研究方向为气候变化对玉米生产的影响与适应。E-mail: 287917117@qq.com

    通讯作者:

    孔凡磊, 主要研究方向为玉米高产高效栽培。E-mail: kflstar@163.com

  • 中图分类号: S513

Climatic resources and drought characteristics of maize sown in different dates in the hilly area of central Sichuan: A case study of Zhongjiang, Sichuan

Funds: This study was supported by the Sichuan Maize Innovation Team Program (SCCXTD-2020-02), the Earmarked Fund for China Agriculture Research System (CARS-02-36) and the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2016YFD0300307, 2017YFD0301704).
More Information
  • 摘要: 川中丘陵区是西南玉米主产区之一, 季节性干旱是该区最主要的农业气象灾害, 研究不同播种时期玉米不同生育阶段气候资源及干旱特征对该区玉米避旱减灾有重大意义。本文以川中丘陵地区的中江为例, 利用1981—2020年四川省中江县气象站地面气象观测资料, 从3月下旬至6月上旬设置8个播期, 分析不同播期玉米生育期主要农业气候资源变化规律, 同时基于作物水分亏缺指数(CWDI)研究不同播期玉米各生育阶段干旱特征, 为川中丘陵区玉米适宜播期选择和生育期内阶段性干旱防御提供科学依据。结果表明: 1)近40年各播期玉米生育期气候资源变化均呈日照时数下降、温度升高、降雨量下降的趋势; 随播期推迟, 日均温、生长度日、高温度日均先升后降, 日照时数随播期推迟呈下降趋势, 而降雨量则随播期推迟呈增加趋势。适当推迟播期, 有利于提高玉米对日照、热量和降水资源的综合利用。2)随播期推迟, 玉米播种—拔节、拔节—抽雄阶段CWDI呈明显降低趋势, 3月下旬播种玉米抽雄—灌浆阶段CWDI明显高于其他播期; 推迟播期可降低玉米生育期水分亏缺的危险。3)不同播期玉米最易受旱生育阶段存在差异, 3月下旬、5月下旬、6月上旬播种玉米在播种—拔节阶段干旱频率最高, 4月上旬—5月中旬播种玉米在拔节—抽雄阶段干旱频率最高。4)各播期玉米各生育阶段干旱强度以轻旱、中旱为主, 重旱次之, 特旱最低; 推迟播期玉米干旱强度由中旱降为轻旱为主, 可降低玉米干旱发生频率, 特别是重旱和特旱发生频率。研究区玉米宜在5月中旬前播种; 玉米在3月下旬、4月上旬播种时, 应注重灌浆期以前的抗旱管理; 4月中旬到5月中旬播种时, 应注重抽雄前的抗旱管理, 同时预防灌浆—成熟阶段的高温风险。
  • 图  1  不同播期玉米各生育阶段日照时数及气候倾向率

    Figure  1.  Sunshine duration and climate tendency during each growing period of maize under different sowing dates

    图  2  不同播期玉米各生育阶段日均温

    Figure  2.  Daily mean temperature during each growing period of maize under different sowing dates

    图  3  不同播期玉米各生育阶段生长度日

    Figure  3.  Growing degree days (GDD) during each growing period of maize under different sowing dates

    图  4  不同播期玉米各生育阶段高温度日

    Figure  4.  Heat degree days (HDD) during each growing period of maize under different sowing dates

    图  5  不同播期玉米各生育阶段降雨量及气候倾向率

    Figure  5.  Precipitation and climate tendency during each growing period of maize under different sowing dates

    图  6  不同播期玉米各生育阶段水分亏缺指数变化

    SJ: 播种—拔节期; JT: 拔节—抽雄期; TF: 抽雄—灌浆期; FM: 灌浆—成熟。SJ: sowing−jointing; JT: jointing−tasseling; TF: tasseling−filling; FM: filling−maturity.

    Figure  6.  Changes of crop water deficity index (CWDI) during each growing period of maize under different sowing dates

    图  7  不同播期玉米各生育阶段干旱频率

    Figure  7.  Drought frequency of maize during each growing stage under different sowing dates

    表  1  不同播期玉米生育阶段

    Table  1.   Growing stages of maize sown in different dates

    播种日期(月-日)
    Sowing date (month-day)
    播种—拔节
    Sowing−jointing
    拔节—抽雄
    Jointing−tasseling
    抽雄—灌浆
    Tasseling−filling
    灌浆—成熟
    Filling−maturity
    03-253月下旬—5月上旬
    21st Mar. to 10 th May
    5月中旬—6月上旬
    11st May to 10 th Jun.
    6月中旬—6月下旬
    11st Jun. to 30 th Jun.
    7月上旬—7月下旬
    1st Jul. to 31th Jul.
    04-054月上旬—5月中旬
    1st Apr. to 20th May
    5月下旬—6月中旬
    21st May to 20th Jun.
    6月下旬—7月上旬
    21st Jun. to 10th Jul.
    7月中旬—8月上旬
    11st Jul. to 10th Aug.
    04-154月中旬—5月下旬
    11st Apr. to 31th May
    6月上旬—6月下旬
    1st Jun. to 30th Jun.
    7月上旬—7月中旬
    1st Jul. to 20th Jul.
    7月下旬—8月中旬
    21st Jul. to 20th Aug.
    04-254月下旬—5月下旬
    21st Apr. to 31th May
    6月上旬—6月下旬
    1st Jun. to 30th Jun.
    7月上旬—7月中旬
    1st Jul. to 20th Jul.
    7月下旬—8月中旬
    21st Jul. to 20th Aug.
    05-055月上旬—6月上旬
    1st May to 10th Jun.
    6月中旬—7月上旬
    11st Jun. to 10th Jul.
    7月中旬—7月下旬
    11st Jul. to 31th Jul.
    8月上旬—8月下旬
    1st Aug. to 31th Aug.
    05-155月中旬—6月上旬
    11st May to 10th Jun.
    6月中旬—7月上旬
    11st Jun. to 10th Jul.
    7月中旬—7月下旬
    11st Jul. to 31th Jul.
    8月上旬—8月下旬
    1st Aug. to 31th Aug.
    05-255月下旬—6月中旬
    21st May to 20th Jun.
    6月下旬—7月中旬
    21st Jun. to 20th Jul.
    7月下旬—8月上旬
    21st Jul. to 10th Aug.
    8月中旬—9月上旬
    11st Aug. to 10th Sep.
    06-056月上旬—6月下旬
    1st Jun. to 30th Jun.
    7月上旬—7月下旬
    1st Jul. to 31th Jul.
    8月上旬—8月中旬
    1st Aug. to 20th Aug.
    8月下旬—9月中旬
    21st Aug. to 20th Sep.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  基于作物水分亏缺指数(CWDI)的农业干旱等级

    Table  2.   Grades of agricultural drought based on crop water deficit index (CWDI)

    干旱等级
    Drought grade
    CWDI (%)
    无旱 No drought
    轻旱 Light drought
    中旱 Moderate drought
    重旱 Severe drought
    特旱 Excessive drought
    CWDI≤35
    35<CWDI≤50
    50<CWDI≤65
    65<CWDI≤80
    CWDI>80
    下载: 导出CSV
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