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坡耕地山原红壤大豆根系构型及根土复合体力学特性

张立芸 段青松 李永梅

张立芸, 段青松, 李永梅. 坡耕地山原红壤大豆根系构型及根土复合体力学特性[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2022, 30(9): 1464−1476 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20220003
引用本文: 张立芸, 段青松, 李永梅. 坡耕地山原红壤大豆根系构型及根土复合体力学特性[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2022, 30(9): 1464−1476 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20220003
ZHANG L Y, DUAN Q S, LI Y M. Soybean roots architecture and the mechanical properties of the root-soil complex in mountain red soil on sloping farmland[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2022, 30(9): 1464−1476 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20220003
Citation: ZHANG L Y, DUAN Q S, LI Y M. Soybean roots architecture and the mechanical properties of the root-soil complex in mountain red soil on sloping farmland[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2022, 30(9): 1464−1476 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20220003

坡耕地山原红壤大豆根系构型及根土复合体力学特性

doi: 10.12357/cjea.20220003
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金项目(41461059)和云南省教育厅科学研究基金项目(2019J0178, 2022J0343)资助
详细信息
    作者简介:

    张立芸, 主要研究方向为农业水土工程。E-mail: 37545459@qq.com

    通讯作者:

    李永梅, 主要研究方向为坡耕地可持续利用。E-mail: youngmaylee@126.com

  • 中图分类号: S157.1; Q944.3

Soybean roots architecture and the mechanical properties of the root-soil complex in mountain red soil on sloping farmland

Funds: This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41461059) and the Scientific Research Fund of Yunnan Provincial Department of Education (2019J0178, 2022J0343).
More Information
  • 摘要: 为研究大豆根系在西南山区坡耕地水土保持中的价值, 本文在大豆的3个主要生育期(开花期、始粒期和鼓粒期)采集根系和根土复合体样本, 采用WinRHIZO (Pro.2019)根系分析系统测定并计算了根系的几何形态特征、分形特征和拓扑结构, 用无侧限压缩试验测定了根土复合体的力学特性, 分析大豆根系在不同生育期的构型特征及其对土体力学特性的影响。结果表明: 1)大豆根系的分形维数在鼓粒期最小, 分形丰度在开花期最小, 但两者均在始粒期最大; 2)拓扑指数随生育期先减小后增大, 在始粒期最接近0.5, 且平均连接长度最小, 根系趋向于叉状分支模式, 此时根系分支状态最为复杂; 3)大豆根系的分形特征、拓扑特征与根长等主要形态特征参数有极显著相关关系(P<0.01); 4)大豆根系能显著增强土体强度, 其根土复合体的无侧限抗压强度表现为始粒期(41.44 kPa)>鼓粒期(37.95 kPa)>开花期(29.29 kPa), 分形维数和分形丰度与土体的力学特性呈显著正相关关系(P<0.01)。综上, 大豆根系分形维数和丰度越大、拓扑指数越小时, 根土复合体的无侧限抗压强度越大, 其根系固土效应越显著; 农作物根系分形特征和拓扑特征不仅可用于表达根系在土体中的分支状态、空间分布和拓展模式, 也可作为评价农作物根系固土效应的主要参数。在山区坡耕地的农作物配置中, 应注重培育分支复杂、根系发达的大豆品种以防治水土流失。
  • 图  1  研究区位置

    Figure  1.  Location of the study area

    图  2  试验小区设置和取样位置示意图

    CK为裸地对照; SS为大豆单作。

    Figure  2.  Layouts of the experimental plots and sampling locations

    CK is the treatment of bare land. SS is the treatment of mono-soybean.

    图  3  两种根系拓扑结构示意图(μ为根系外部链接数量, a为根系最长链接路径的链接数量, TI为拓扑指数)

    Figure  3.  Schematic diagram of two root system topologies (μ is the magnitude of roots. a is the altitude of roots. TI is topological index)

    图  4  大豆不同生育期根系分形特征[分形维数(FD)和分形丰度(FK)]和拓扑结构[拓扑指数(TI)和平均连接长度(AL)]的变化

    S1: 开花期; S2: 始粒期; S3: 鼓粒期。不同小写和大写字母分别表示不同生育期间在P<0.05和P<0.01水平差异显著, n=25。

    Figure  4.  Changes in fractal characteristics (fractal dimension, FD; fractal abundance, FK) and topological structure (topological index, TI; average link length, AL) of soybean root system at different growth stages

    S1: blooming stage; S2: initial grain forming stage; S3: seed filling stage. Different lowercase and capital letters indicate significant differences among growth stages at P<0.05 and P<0.01 levels, respectively. n=25.

    图  5  素土与不同生育期大豆根土复合体的力学特性[无侧限抗压强度(UCS)和弹性模量(EM)]及应力应变曲线(RV: 根土复合体试样的根系体积)

    RLS: 素土; S1: 开花期; S2: 始粒期; S3: 鼓粒期。不同小写和大写字母分别表示不同生育期间在P<0.05和P<0.01水平差异显著。

    Figure  5.  Mechanical properties (unconfined compressive strength, UCS; elastic modulus, EM) and stress-strain curves (RV: root volume in the root-soil complexes) of rootless soil and soybean root-soil complexes at different growth stages

    RLS is rootless soil; S1, S2, S3 are blooming stage, initial grain forming stage and seed filling stage. Different lowercase and capital letters indicate significant differences among growth stages at P<0.05 and P<0.01 levels, respectively.

    表  1  供试土壤的基本特征

    Table  1.   Basic physical and chemical properties of the tested soil

    粒径级配
    Particle size distribution (%)
    土粒比重
    Specific gravity
    (GS)
    土壤容重
    Bulk density
    (g∙cm−3)
    液限
    Liquid limit
    (%)
    塑限
    Plastic limit
    (%)
    塑性指数
    Plasticity index
    (%)
    有机质
    Organic matter
    (g∙kg−1)
    pH
    砂粒 Sand
    (0.075~2 mm)
    粉粒 Silt
    (0.005~0.075 mm)
    黏粒 Clay
    (<0.005 mm)
    5.052.442.52.751.3559.732.926.830.156.29
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  大豆不同生育期根系(单株)特征参数

    Table  2.   Root characteristic parameters of soybean at different growth stages

    特征参数
    Characteristic parameter
    开花期
    Blooming stage
    始粒期
    Initial grain forming stage
    鼓粒期
    Seed filling stage
    根长 Root length (cm)598.68±94.29aA603.61±189.89aA580.70±195.51aA
    表面积 Root surface area (cm2)92.33±13.07bB99.74±20.61bAB118.81±38.63aA
    平均直径 Average diameter (mm)0.54±0.04cB0.59±0.08bB0.66±0.08aA
    根体积 Root volume (cm3)3.23±0.95bC4.96±1.37aA4.60±1.89aAB
    根尖数 Tips number734.15±126.49bB1526.40±486.72aA678.52±319.35bB
    分支数 Forks number1877.15±414.52bB2110.80±1158.32aA1447.57±722.14 bB
    交叉数 Crossings number (个)195.25±48.43aA201.00±138.52aA162.70±86.61bB
    平均分支角 Average branching angle (°)51.82±1.12aA51.23±1.66aA51.81±1.17aA
    根尖密度 Root tip linear density (tipes∙cm−1)1.23±0.14bB2.56±0.47aA1.13±0.21bB
    分支密度 Forks linear density (forks∙cm−1)3.30±0.38aA3.36±0.63aA2.38±0.54bB
      表中数值为平均值±标准差。不同小写和大写字母分别表示不同生育期间在P<0.05和P<0.01水平差异显著, n=25。The data in the table are mean ± standard deviation. Different lowercase and capital letters indicate significant differences among different growth stages at P<0.05 and P<0.01 levels, respectively. n=25.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  大豆根系(单株)分形特征、拓扑结构参数与形态特征参数的相关性

    Table  3.   Correlation of fractal characteristics, topological structure parameters and morphological characteristics parameters of soybean root system

    特征参数
    Characteristic parameters
    分形维数
    Fractal dimension
    分形丰度
    Fractal abundance
    拓扑指数
    Topology index
    平均连接长度
    Average link length
    根长 Root length0.596**0.963**−0.710**−0.663**
    表面积 Root surface area0.713**0.984**−0.714**−0.440*
    平均直径 Average diameter0.340−0.0190.0480.693**
    根体积 Root volume0.738**0.806**−0.623**−0.076
    根尖数 Tips0.0110.357**−0.737**−0.596**
    分支数 Forks0.585**0.817**−0.597**−0.855**
    交叉数 Crossings0.510*0.770**−0.583**−0.764**
    平均分支角 Average branching angle0.536**0.522*−0.498*−0.440*
    根尖密度 Root tip linear density0.2090.017−0.699**−0.492**
    分支密度 Forks linear density0.496**0.127−0.451**−0.938**
    分形维数 Fractal dimension0.667**−0.466*−0.344
    分形丰度 Fractal abundance−0.751**−0.509*
    拓扑指数 Topology index0.310
      **和*分别代表在P<0.01和P<0.05水平显著相关。** and * represent significant correlation at P<0.01 and P<0.05 levels, respectively.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  素土和大豆不同生育期根土复合体的天然含水率、天然密度、干密度、饱和含水率、饱和密度和孔隙比

    Table  4.   Natural water content, natural density, dry density, saturated water content, saturated density and porosity ratio of rootless soil and soybean root-soil complexes at different growth stages

    处理
    Treatment
    天然含水率
    Natural water content (%)
    天然密度
    Natural density
    (g∙cm−3)
    干密度
    Dry density
    (g∙cm−3)
    饱和含水率
    Saturated water content
    (%)
    饱和密度
    Saturated density
    (g∙cm−3)
    孔隙比
    Porosity ratio
    RLS26.1±0.8cC1.73±0.02bBC1.37±0.14aA34.9±0.7cD1.85±0.12aA1.005±0.004cC
    S131.9±0.7aA1.75±0.03aA1.31±0.05cC37.8±0.2aA1.82±0.06cB1.100±0.006aA
    S231.3±0.2aA1.74±0.02aAB1.32±0.07cC37.7±0.2aAB1.82±0.02cB1.091±0.004aAB
    S328.4±0.5bB1.73±0.25bB1.33±0.04bB36.7±0.1bBC1.83±0.01bB1.066±0.019bB
      RLS为素土试样, S1、S2、S3分别为大豆开花期、始粒期和鼓粒期的根土复合体样本, n=15。不同小写和大写字母分别表示不同生育期间在P<0.05和P<0.01水平差异显著。RLS is rootless soil; S1, S2, S3 are root-soil composites at blooming stage, initial grain forming stage and seed filling stage of soybean, respectively. n=15. Different lowercase and capital letters indicate significant differences among growth stages at P<0.05 and P<0.01 levels, respectively.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  大豆全生育期根土复合体力学特性与根系形态和分形特征的相关性及拟合方程

    Table  5.   Correlation and regression equations between mechanical properties of root-soil complexes and root morphology and fractal characteristics during growth period of soybean

    特征参数
    Characteristic parameter
    相关系数
    Coefficient
    无侧限抗压强度的拟合方程
    Regression equation of unconfined compressive stregth
    无侧限抗压强度
    Unconfined compressive strength
    弹性模量
    Elastic modulus
    方程
    Equation
    R2P
    根长 Root length0.731**0.785**y=27.109ln(x)−114.6970.550<0.001
    表面积 Root surface area0.859**0.712**y=0.001x2+1.860x−39.1210.827<0.001
    平均直径 Average diameter0.2920.139///
    根体积 Root volume0.794**0.767**y =0.393x2+7.492x+18.9820.638<0.001
    根尖数 Tips0.768**0.736**y=20.124ln(x)–93.5120.610<0.001
    分支数 Forks0.711**0.664**y=17.050ln(x)–74.5020.570<0.001
    交叉数 Crossings0.4640.498*///
    平均分支角
    Average branching angle
    0.0770.059///
    根尖密度
    Root tip linear density
    0.509*0.454y=10.771x2+66.103x−56.5950.321<0.05
    分支密度 Forks linear density0.496*0.402y=7.748x2+54.436x−48.1550.730<0.05
    平均连接长度 Average link length0.603**0.360y=94.245e3.43x0.366<0.01
    分形维数 Fractal dimension0.826**0.446y=0.349x10.4280.705<0.001
    分形丰度 Fractal abundance0.892**0.667**y=259.530x2+1996.044x−3787.0830.880<0.001
      *P<0.05; **P<0.01.
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2022-01-02
  • 录用日期:  2022-02-22
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-03-28
  • 刊出日期:  2022-09-09

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