邹国元, 曹兵, 李丽霞, 肖强, 李吉进. 缓控释肥料研发需要长期坚持[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2023, 31(8): 1220−1229. DOI: 10.12357/cjea.20230038
引用本文: 邹国元, 曹兵, 李丽霞, 肖强, 李吉进. 缓控释肥料研发需要长期坚持[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2023, 31(8): 1220−1229. DOI: 10.12357/cjea.20230038
ZOU G Y, CAO B, LI L X, XIAO Q, LI J J. It is necessary to develop the slow and controlled release fertilizer continuously[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2023, 31(8): 1220−1229. DOI: 10.12357/cjea.20230038
Citation: ZOU G Y, CAO B, LI L X, XIAO Q, LI J J. It is necessary to develop the slow and controlled release fertilizer continuously[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2023, 31(8): 1220−1229. DOI: 10.12357/cjea.20230038

缓控释肥料研发需要长期坚持

It is necessary to develop the slow and controlled release fertilizer continuously

  • 摘要: 发展缓控释肥料是实现化肥减量增效的重要方向, 在支撑现代农业绿色发展中发挥着重要作用。文章回顾了北京市农林科学院植物营养与资源环境研究所在该领域32年的研究工作, 从研究历程、队伍建设、产品开发和农化服务等方面阐述了缓控释肥料自实验室走向农田的来龙去脉, 对未来的研究方向进行了分析与展望。研究所1991—1998年相继研制出沸石包膜肥料和聚烯烃树脂包膜肥料。1999—2015年, 控释肥料逐步实现产业化。2016年以后, 生物基包膜控释肥料受到重视, 研究取得了较大进展。沸石包衣肥料是以天然沸石为包膜剂的无机包膜肥料。聚烯烃树脂包膜肥料是将树脂溶液喷洒在肥料表面形成一层半渗透或不渗透材料, 以实现养分的控制释放。聚氨酯包膜肥料是一种热固性树脂包膜控释肥料, 无溶剂原位反应成膜是其常用生产工艺, 研究所先后开发了半自动、自动化连续生产技术。研究所缓控释肥料的创制服务了从大田到园艺系列作物养分精准需求, 带动了肥料产业升级、面源污染治理、肥料减量增效工作的开展。为适应农业发展的现实需求, 未来仍需在肥料产品包膜材料生物可降解、肥料养分释放多阶段连续可控、大规模连续化生产工艺创新、肥料产品质量在线快速检测技术、作物专用多元复合控释功能肥料等方面持续研究。

     

    Abstract: The development of slow-release and controlled-release fertilizers is an important way to reduce fertilizer rates, improve their use efficiency, and play an important role in supporting the sustainable development of modern agriculture. This paper reviewed 32 years of research in the fertilizer field at the Institute of Plant Nutrition, Resources, and Environment, Beijing Academy of Agricultural and Forestry Sciences. The research process, team organization, product innovation, and fertilization service of different fertilizers from the laboratory to the field were introduced, and future research directions were analyzed and prospected. Since 1991, the institute has been researching and developing slow-release and controlled-release fertilizers. In the initial stage (1991–1998), zeolite- and resin-coated fertilizers were successively developed. During the rapid development stage (1999–2015), controlled-release fertilizer products gradually realized industrialization and drove the development of the industry. During the stable promotion period (2016–), attention has been paid to bio-based coated controlled-release fertilizers, and considerable progress has been made. Zeolite-coated urea is an inorganic fertilizer that uses natural zeolite as a coating agent. Their functional characteristics were investigated, and a series of fertilizer formulations and application techniques were developed. Resin-coated fertilizers are prepared by spraying a layer of semi-permeable or impermeable material onto the fertilizer surface to achieve a controlled release of nutrients. The production process of the polyolefin resin is divided into three parts: dissolution of the coating material in the solvent, granule coating, and solvent recovery. In 1998, the institute developed spouted-bed coating equipment with an annual output of 2000 t of resin-coated fertilizer. Thermosetting resin-coated fertilizer is another major type for which the solvent-free in situ reaction film-forming process is commonly used. A high-efficiency mixed spraying method with a self-cleaning function was proposed, and semiautomatic and continuous automatic production was developed one after another. Simultaneously, nutrient release prediction technology and online rapid detection technology were developed for controlled-release fertilizers, and a series of special formula fertilizers and their application technologies were developed. The innovation of slow-release and controlled-release fertilizers has served the precise nutrient requirements of crops from the field to horticulture and promoted upgrading the fertilizer industry, reducing the fertilizer rate, enhancing fertilizer use efficiency, and even controlling non-point source pollution. To meet the realistic need for agricultural development in the future, it is still necessary to continuously study biodegradable coating materials for fertilizer products, the multi-stage continuously controllable release of nutrients, innovative large-scale and continuous production processes, online rapid detection technologies for product quality, and special multi-component and controlled-release functional fertilizers for crops.

     

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