留言板

尊敬的读者、作者、审稿人, 关于本刊的投稿、审稿、编辑和出版的任何问题, 您可以本页添加留言。我们将尽快给您答复。谢谢您的支持!

姓名
邮箱
手机号码
标题
留言内容
验证码

论乡村生态振兴

黄国勤

黄国勤. 论乡村生态振兴[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2019, 27(2): 190-197. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.180820
引用本文: 黄国勤. 论乡村生态振兴[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2019, 27(2): 190-197. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.180820
HUANG Guoqin. A look at rural ecological revitalization[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2019, 27(2): 190-197. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.180820
Citation: HUANG Guoqin. A look at rural ecological revitalization[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2019, 27(2): 190-197. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.180820

论乡村生态振兴

doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.180820
基金项目: 

国家重点研发计划课题 2016YFD0300208

国家自然科学基金项目 41661070

江西省软科学研究计划项目 20133BBA10005

详细信息
    作者简介:

    黄国勤, 研究方向为耕作制度、农业生态和农业可持续发展等。E-mail: hgqjxes@sina.com

  • 中图分类号: S181

A look at rural ecological revitalization

Funds: 

the National Key R&D Project of China 2016YFD0300208

the National Natural Science Foundation of China 41661070

and Jiangxi Soft Science Research Project 20133BBA10005

More Information
  • 摘要: 当前,全国上下正在按照党中央、国务院的战略部署,实施乡村振兴战略。生态振兴是乡村振兴的重要组成部分,是乡村"五个振兴"(乡村产业振兴、乡村人才振兴、乡村文化振兴、乡村生态振兴、乡村组织振兴)之一。本文从生态的重要性入手,在简述生态振兴在乡村振兴中的地位和作用的基础上,着重分析了当前乡村存在的主要生态问题——生态破坏、资源浪费、环境污染、疾病增多和村庄衰减。针对存在的这些生态问题,作者提出了乡村生态振兴的战略对策和措施,即在遵循村民主体原则、"三效"并举原则、综合施策原则、因地制宜原则和久久为功原则的前提下,采取以下具体措施:制定生态规划,提高生态意识,增长生态知识,提升生态素质,弘扬生态文化,完善生态法规,强化生态治理,加强生态保护,搞生态建设,开展生态交流,重视生态科研,培养生态人才。
  • 表  1  “生态”一词在党的十九大报告中出现的形式(名词)、次数及位置(页码)

    Table  1.   Form (noun), frequency of occurrence and location (page number) of the term "Ecology" in the Reports of the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China

    序号Serial number 出现形式(名词) Form (noun) 出现次数(次) Occurrence number 出现位置(页码) Position (page number)
    1 生态Ecology 2 12, 24
    2 生态文明Ecological civilization 12 5, 6, 18, 23, 27, 29, 50, 52
    3 生态环境Ecological environment 11 5, 6, 9, 24, 28, 50, 52
    4 生态保护Ecological protection 3 5, 52, 52
    5 政治生态Political ecology 3 6, 8, 62
    6 生态安全Ecological security 2 24, 51
    7 生态体系Ecological system 1 25
    8 生态宜居Ecological livability 1 32
    9 生态产品Ecological products 1 50
    10 生态系统Ecological system 3 51, 52
    11 生态廊道Ecological corridor 1 52
    12 生态补偿Ecological compensation 1 52
    13 生态监管Ecological supervision 1 52
    合计Total 42
    根据文献[2]整理所得。According to the reference [2].
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  中国乡村生态问题的表现形式、后果及主要原因

    Table  2.   Forms, consequences and main causes of rural ecological problems in China

    生态问题
    Ecological problem
    表现形式
    Manifestation
    后果(危害)
    Consequences (hazards)
    主要原因
    Main reasons
    生态破坏
    Ecological destruction
    建造房屋引起的生态破坏, “大树进城”引起的植被破坏, 建设“新村”造成的生态破坏, 兴修农田水利引发的生态破坏, 矿山开发引起的生态破坏
    Ecological damage caused by building houses, “big trees entering the city”, construction of “new village”, construction of farmland and water conservancy, and mining
    乡村生态结构遭受破坏, 系统功能下降, 并可能引发水土流失、滑坡、泥石流等自然灾害
    Rural ecological structures are damaged, system functions are degraded, and natural disasters such as soil erosion, landslides, and mudslides may be triggered.
    缺乏科学规划和周密认证, 乡村建设过程中没有考虑生态后果, 没有做到经济建设与生态环境保护相结合
    Lack of scientific planning and careful certification, not considering ecological consequences in the rural construction, and not combining economic construction with ecological environmental protection.
    资源浪费
    Wasting resources
    耕地资源、作物秸秆资源、生活废弃物(生活污水、生活垃圾)资源和厕所粪污和畜禽粪便资源浪费
    Waste of cultivated land, crop straws, life wastes (domestic sewage, domestic garbage), and manure and livestock manure
    既浪费了宝贵的自然资源, 又污染了生态环境, 对村容村貌造成严重损害
    It not only wastes valuable natural resources, but also pollutes the ecological environment, causing a serious damage to the village.
    缺乏资源意识、生态意识、环保意识, 制度不完善、不健全, 监管不力, 管理不到位
    Lack of resources awareness, ecological awareness and environmental protection awareness; imperfect institutions and systems; inadequate supervision and management.
    环境污染
    Environmental pollution
    大气污染, 水污染, 土壤污染, 农产品污染
    Air pollution, water pollution, soil pollution and agricultural product pollution.
    造成乡村出现雾霾, 水污染不能饮用, 农产品有毒有害物质残留超标, 不能食用
    Causing haze in the countryside, undrinkable water due to pollution, and inedible agricultural products due to excessive residues of toxic and hazardous substances.
    系统内造成的污染:焚烧秸秆, 过量使用化肥、农药等化学投入品, 厕所粪污和畜禽粪便未进行无害化处理; 系统外造成的污染:工业三废(废气、废液、废渣)、城市垃圾等下乡
    Inside the system, pollution are caused by burning straw, excessive use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, improper dispose of toilet manure and livestock. Outside the system, pollution are caused by discharge of industrial “three wastes” (exhaust gas, waste liquid, waste residue), urban garbage.
    疾病增多
    Increase in diseases
    疾病种类增多, 患病人数增加, 不孕不育比例上升, “癌症村”不断出现
    Increases of disease types, patients number, infertility proportion and Cancer Village
    由乡村严重的大气污染、水污染、土壤污染、农产品污染造成人免疫系统受到破坏, 以致疾病多发; 水体污染是导致“癌症村”的罪魁祸首
    Serious air pollution, water pollution, soil pollution, agricultural product pollution causes destruction of human immune system; environmental pollution, especially water pollution, is the chief culprit of the Cancer Village.
    既有“系统内”污染源造成的环境污染, 又有“系统外”(工业、城市)污染源造成的环境污染; 既有自然原因(酸沉降, 如降酸雨; 水土流失等), 更有人为因素(疾病传染、传播, 预防不力、管理不严等)
    There are both environmental pollution caused by inside system pollution sources and outside system (industrial, urban) pollution sources; there are natural causes (acid deposition, water and soil loss, etc.), and human factors (infection, spread, poor prevention, lax management, etc.).
    村庄衰减
    Village attenuation
    乡村人口减少, 空闲房屋增多; 出现空心村(空壳村或空洞村); 村庄减少, 甚至消亡
    Rural population decreases and idle houses number increases; Hollow Village (empty village) appeared; villages reduction or even disappearing.
    2000—2010年, 中国自然村由360万个减至270万个, 其中不乏众多古村落。中国乡村正在衰落、消亡, 中国乡村、乡村文明危矣!
    From 2000 to 2010, the number of natural villages in China has been reduced from 3.6 million to 2.7 million. China’s rural areas are declining and dying, and China’s rural and rural civilization are in danger!
    大背景的影响:工业化、城市化、城镇化快速推进, 对乡村发展产生的不利影响; 乡村生产、生活条件落后和生态环境恶化助长了村庄衰减; 城乡差距拉大, 进一步加剧村庄衰减
    Unfavorable impact of industrialization, urbanization, and rapid urbanization on rural development; backward of rural production and deterioration of the ecological environment; widened gap between urban and rural areas.
    下载: 导出CSV
  • [1] 中共中央国务院关于实施乡村振兴战略的意见[J].中国合作经济, 2018, (2): 18-27

    Opinions of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council on the implementation of the rural revitalization strategy[J]. China Co-operation Economy, 2018, (2): 18-27
    [2] 习近平.决胜全面建成小康社会夺取新时代中国特色社会主义伟大胜利——在中国共产党第十九次全国代表大会上的报告(2017年10月18日)[R].北京: 人民出版社, 2017年10月

    XI J P. Decisive Winning of Building a Well-off Society in an All-round Way to Win a Great Victory in Socialism with Chinese Characteristics in the New Era-At the 19th Na-tional Congress of the Communist Party of China (October 18th, 2017)[R]. Beijing: People's Publishing House, 2017
    [3] 扎扎实实把乡村振兴战略实施好——六论学习贯彻习近平总书记在山东代表团关于乡村振兴的讲话精神[N].农民日报, 2018-3-15(第1版)

    Practical implementation strategy of rural revitalization-Study and implement the speech of the General Secretary XI Jinping about rural revitalization in Shandong Delegation[N]. Farmers' Daily, 2018-3-15(The 001th
    [4] 肖凡.浅谈当前农村地区水环境保护战略思想[J].华商, 2008, (22):9 http://www.wanfangdata.com.cn/details/detail.do?_type=perio&id=QK200802370195

    XIAO F. A brief discussion on the current strategic thinking of water environment protection in rural areas[J]. Chinese Businessman, 2008, (22):9 http://www.wanfangdata.com.cn/details/detail.do?_type=perio&id=QK200802370195
    [5] 于法稳.基于健康视角的乡村振兴战略相关问题研究[J].重庆社会科学, 2018, (4):6-15 http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTOTAL-CQSK201804002.htm

    YU F W. Research on the issues related to Rural Vitalization Strategy Based on Health Perspective[J], Chongqing Social Sciences, 2018, (4):6-15 http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTOTAL-CQSK201804002.htm
    [6] 王永生, 刘彦随.中国乡村生态环境污染现状及重构策略[J].地理科学进展, 2018, 37(5):710-717 http://d.old.wanfangdata.com.cn/Periodical/dlkxjz201805014

    WANG Y S, LIU Y S. Pollution and restructuring strategies of rural ecological environment in China[J]. Progress in Geography, 2018, 37(5):710-717 http://d.old.wanfangdata.com.cn/Periodical/dlkxjz201805014
    [7] 丁凡, 黄立勇, 王锐, 等.中国2004-2015年突发水污染事件监测数据分析[J].中国公共卫生, 2017, 33(1):59-62 http://d.old.wanfangdata.com.cn/Periodical/zgggws201701015

    DING F, HUANG L Y, WANG R, et al. Water pollution emergencies in China, 2004-2015:Monitoring data analy-sis[J]. Chinese Journal of Public Health, 2017, 33(1):59-62 http://d.old.wanfangdata.com.cn/Periodical/zgggws201701015
    [8] 王玉军, 刘存, 周东美, 等.客观地看待我国耕地土壤环境质量的现状——关于《全国土壤污染状况调查公报》中有关问题的讨论和建议[J].农业环境科学学报, 2014, 33(8):1465-1473 http://d.old.wanfangdata.com.cn/Periodical/nyhjbh201408001

    WANG Y J, LIU C, ZHOU D M, et al. A critical view on the status quo of the farmland soil environmental quality in China:Discussion and suggestion of relevant issues on Report on the National General Survey of Soil Contami-nation[J]. Journal of Agro-Environment Science, 2014, 33(8):1465-1473 http://d.old.wanfangdata.com.cn/Periodical/nyhjbh201408001
    [9] 王敬中.我国每年因重金属污染粮食达1200万吨[J].农村实用技术, 2006, (11):27 http://d.old.wanfangdata.com.cn/Periodical/ncsyjs200611028

    WANG J Z. China has 12 million tons grain contaminated by heavy metals every year[J]. Rural Practical Technology, 2006, (11):27 http://d.old.wanfangdata.com.cn/Periodical/ncsyjs200611028
    [10] 林黛茜, 韩英, 王叶舟, 等.福建省高血压患病情况及影响因素分析[J].中华高血压杂志, 2018, 26(2):159-163 http://d.old.wanfangdata.com.cn/Thesis/D01305549

    LIN D X, HAN Y, WANG Y Z, et al. Prevalence and related risk factors of hypertension in Fujian Province[J]. Chinese Journal of Hypertension, 2018, 26(2):159-163 http://d.old.wanfangdata.com.cn/Thesis/D01305549
    [11] 孙庆升.环境污染助推不孕不育[N].保健时报, 2010-7-29(第007版)

    SUN Q S. Environmental pollution contributes to infertili-ty[N]. Healthcare Times, 2010-7-29(The 007th
    [12] 龚胜生, 张涛.中国"癌症村"时空分布变迁研究[J].中国人口·资源与环境, 2013, 23(9):156-164 doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1002-2104.2013.09.023

    GONG S S, ZHANG T. Temporal-spatial distribution changes of cancer Villages in China[J]. China Population, Resources and Environment, 2013, 23(9):156-164 doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1002-2104.2013.09.023
    [13] 官天明, 石始宏.河北省"空心村"现状调查及分析[J].中小企业管理与科技(中旬刊), 2016, (4):92-93 http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTOTAL-ZQGZ201604054.htm

    GUAN T M, SHI S H. Investigation and analysis of the cur-rent situation of "hollow village" in Hebei Province[J]. Small and Medium-Sized Enterprise Management and Technology, 2016, (4):92-93 http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTOTAL-ZQGZ201604054.htm
    [14] 张孝德.生态文明视野下中国乡村文明发展命运反思[J].行政管理改革, 2013, (3):27-34 http://d.old.wanfangdata.com.cn/Periodical/xzglgg201303007

    ZHANG X D. Reflection on the development destiny of Chinese rural civilization from the perspective of ecological civilization[J]. Administration Reform, 2013, (3):27-34 http://d.old.wanfangdata.com.cn/Periodical/xzglgg201303007
    [15] 张晓山.农村基层治理结构:现状、问题与展望[J].求索, 2016, (7):4-11 http://d.old.wanfangdata.com.cn/Periodical/xzsfdxxb-zxsh201704001

    ZHANG X S. Rural grass-roots governance structure:Current situation, problems and prospects[J]. Seeker, 2016, (7):4-11 http://d.old.wanfangdata.com.cn/Periodical/xzsfdxxb-zxsh201704001
  • 加载中
表(2)
计量
  • 文章访问数:  1101
  • HTML全文浏览量:  37
  • PDF下载量:  759
  • 被引次数: 0
出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2018-09-04
  • 录用日期:  2018-10-15
  • 刊出日期:  2019-02-01

目录

    /

    返回文章
    返回