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东北典型黑土区耕地质量时空变化研究

姚东恒 裴久渤 汪景宽

姚东恒, 裴久渤, 汪景宽. 东北典型黑土区耕地质量时空变化研究[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2020, 28(1): 104-114. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.190485
引用本文: 姚东恒, 裴久渤, 汪景宽. 东北典型黑土区耕地质量时空变化研究[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2020, 28(1): 104-114. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.190485
YAO Dongheng, PEI Jiubo, WANG Jingkuan. Temporal-spatial changes in cultivated land quality in a black soil region of Northeast China[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2020, 28(1): 104-114. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.190485
Citation: YAO Dongheng, PEI Jiubo, WANG Jingkuan. Temporal-spatial changes in cultivated land quality in a black soil region of Northeast China[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2020, 28(1): 104-114. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.190485

东北典型黑土区耕地质量时空变化研究

doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.190485
基金项目: 

国家重点研发计划课题 2017YFD0200604

国家自然科学基金项目 41807086

国家自然科学基金项目 41671293

辽宁省自然科学基金项目 20170540799

沈阳农业大学博士启动基金 880416042

沈阳农业大学博士启动基金 880416020

详细信息
    作者简介:

    姚东恒, 主要从事耕地资源管理方面研究。E-mail:1377648109@qq.com

    通讯作者:

    裴久渤, 主要从事土壤肥力与耕地质量方面研究。E-mail:peijiubo@syau.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: S158.9

Temporal-spatial changes in cultivated land quality in a black soil region of Northeast China

Funds: 

the National Key R & D Program of China 2017YFD0200604

the National Natural Science Foundation of China 41807086

the National Natural Science Foundation of China 41671293

the Natural Science Foundation of Liaoning Province 20170540799

the Doctoral Research Start-Up Funding of Shenyang Agricultural University 880416042

the Doctoral Research Start-Up Funding of Shenyang Agricultural University 880416020

More Information
  • 摘要: 为揭示东北典型黑土区耕地质量时空变化特征,本研究遵循《耕地质量等级》(GB/T 33469-2016)国家标准,在利用特尔菲法选取16个评价指标、层次分析法确定评价指标权重的基础上,建立了东北典型黑土区耕地质量评价指标体系,借助ArcGIS软件对研究区2008年和2018年耕地质量进行同一指标体系和同一分级标准的耕地质量评价,旨在掌握研究区10年间的耕地质量时空变化特征,探究耕地质量变化原因。结果表明:东北典型黑土区耕地质量2008年以中低等地为主,平均耕地质量等级为5.14,2018年以中高等地为主,平均耕地质量等级为3.92,10年间东北典型黑土区耕地质量等级提升了1.22个等级;其中,1~4等地面积均有增加,5~10等地面积均减少,10年间研究区评价单元耕地质量等级提升最多为8个等级,下降最多为7个等级,耕地质量等级提升的评价单元总面积是等级下降评价单元总面积的3.5倍。10年间东北典型黑土区的中西部和西北部耕地质量上升较为明显,而其南部和东北部质量下降的耕地分布较多。本研究规范了研究区耕地质量时空对比分析的依据,合理揭示了其时空变化特征,为该区域今后耕地质量提升工作指明了方向,对今后进一步可持续利用和管理黑土地具有积极意义。
  • 图  1  东北典型黑土区行政区划图

    NJ:嫩江县; WDLC:五大连池市; BA:北安市; NH:讷河市; KS:克山县; KD:克东县; YA:依安县; BQ:拜泉县; HL:海伦市; MS:明水县; WK:望奎县; BL:北林区; BY:巴彦县; LX:兰西县; HL:呼兰区; SB:松北区; DW:道外区; BX:宾县; XF:香坊区; DL:道里区; NG1:南岗区; PF:平房区; AC:阿城区; SC:双城市; WC:五常市; YS:榆树市; DH:德惠市; NA:农安县; JT:九台市; KC:宽城区; LY:绿园区; GZL:公主岭市; ED:二道区; NG:南关区; CY:朝阳区; LS:梨树县; TX:铁西区; TD:铁东区; CT:昌图县。

    Figure  1.  Administrative map of the typical black soil region in Northeast China

    NJ: Nenjiang County; WDLC: Wudalianchi City; BA: Bei'an City; NH: Nehe City; KS: Keshan County; KD: Kedong County; YA: Yi'an County; BQ: Baiquan County; HL: Hailun City; MS: Mingshui County; WK: Wangkui County; BL: Beilin District; BY: Bayan County; LX: Lanxi County; HL: Hulan District; SB: Songbei District; DW: Daowai District; BX: Binxian County; XF: Xiangfang District; DL: Daoli District; NG1: Nangang District; PF: Pingfang District; AC: Acheng District; SC: Shuangcheng City; WC: Wuchang City; YS: Yushu City; DH: Dehui City; NA: Nong'an County; JT: Jiutai City; KC: Kuancheng District; LY: Luyuan District; GZL: Gongzhuling City; ED: Erdao District; NG: Nanguan District; CY: Chaoyang District; LS: Lishu County; TX: Tiexi District; TD: Tiedong District; CT: Changtu County.

    图  2  2018年(a)和2008年(b)东北典型黑土区采样点分布图

    Figure  2.  Sampling points distribution map of typical black soil in Northeast China in 2018 (a) and 2008 (b)

    图  3  2008年(a)和2018年(b)东北典型黑土区耕地质量等级空间分布图

    各地区字母含义见图 1

    Figure  3.  Distribution of cultivated land quality grades in the typical black soil areas in Northeast China in 2008 (a) and 2018(b)

    The meaning of the region letters were shown in the Fig. 1

    图  4  2008—2018年间东北典型黑土区耕地质量等级变化分布图

    各地区字母含义见图 1

    Figure  4.  Distribution of changes of cultivated land quality grades in the typical black soil region of Northeast China from 2008 to 2018

    The meaning of the region letters were shown in the Fig. 1.

    表  1  东北典型黑土区耕地质量评价指标体系及指标权重

    Table  1.   Indexes and weights of cultivated land quality evaluation system of the typical black soil region in Northeast China

    目标层
    Objective
    准则层
    Criterion
    权重
    Weight
    指标层
    Index
    组合权重
    Combination weight
    耕地质量
    Cultivated land quality
    立地条件
    Site condition
    0.171 9 地形部位Terrain position 0.106 2
    农田林网化程度Degree of field forest network 0.065 7
    剖面性状
    Profile characteristics
    0.246 9 有效土层厚度Effective soil layer thickness 0.082 3
    质地构型Texture configuration 0.059 1
    耕层理化性状
    Arable layer physical and chemical property
    0.184 4 障碍因素Obstacle factor 0.055 2
    耕层厚度Arable layer thickness 0.050 3
    耕层质地Arable layer texture 0.076 2
    土壤容重Soil bulk density 0.044 1
    pH 0.064 1
    养分状况
    Nutrient status
    0.165 6 有机质Organic matter 0.068 3
    有效磷Available P 0.053 8
    速效钾Available K 0.043 5
    健康状况
    Health status
    0.071 9 生物多样性Biodiversity 0.036 5
    清洁程度Cleaning degree 0.035 3
    土壤管理
    Soil management
    0.159 4 灌溉能力Irrigation capacity 0.109 9
    排水能力Drainage capability 0.049 5
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  东北典型黑土区耕地质量评价定量指标隶属函数

    Table  2.   Membership functions of quantitative indexes of cultivated land quality evaluation in the typical black soil region of Northeast China

    函数类型Function type 指标Index 隶属函数Function C Ut
    戒上型Upper limit 有效土层厚度Effective soil layer thickness (cm) Y=1/[1+ 0.000 213×(U-C)2] 100.002 147 Ut1= 0, Ut2=100.002 147
    戒上型Upper limit 耕层厚度Arable layer thickness (cm) Y=1/[1+ 0.002 322×(U-C)2] 30.006 247 Ut1= 0, Ut2=30.006 247
    戒上型Upper limit 有机质Organic matter (g·kg-1) Y=1/[1+ 0.000 446×(U-C)2] 60.000 048 Ut1= 0, Ut2=60.000 048
    戒上型Upper limit 有效磷Available P (mg·kg-1) Y=1/[1+ 0.000 396×(U-C)2] 60.009 908 Ut1= 0, Ut2=60.009 908
    戒上型Upper limit 速效钾Available K (mg·kg-1) Y=1/[1+ 0.000 014×(U-C)2] 300.084 871 Ut1= 0, Ut2=300.084 871
    峰型Peak pH Y=1/[1+ 0.209 720×(U-C)2] 6.776 050 Ut1= 0.22, Ut2=13.32
    峰型Peak 土壤容重Soil bulk density (g·cm-3) Y=1/[1+ 8.696 016×(U-C)2] 1.242 811 Ut1= 0.22, Ut2=2.26
    Y表示指标隶属度, U表示样品观测值, C表示指标标准值, Ut1Ut2表示指标下、上限值。Y indicates membership degree of index. U indicates sample observation value. C indicates standard value of index. Ut1 and Ut2 indicate the lower and upper limit value of index.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  东北典型黑土区耕地质量评价定性指标隶属度

    Table  3.   Membership degrees of qualitative indexes of cultivated land quality evaluation in the typical black soil region of Northeast China

    评价指标
    Evaluation index
    属性
    Attribute
    隶属度
    Membership degree
    地形部位
    Terrain position
    平原中阶Middle plain terrace 1.00
    宽谷盆地Broad valley basin 0.96
    平原高阶Upper plain terrace 0.89
    丘陵下部Lower part of hill 0.78
    丘陵中部Middle part of hill 0.77
    平原低阶Lower plain terrace 0.75
    山间盆地Intermontane basin 0.74
    山地坡下Lower part of mountain slope 0.64
    丘陵上部Upper part of hill 0.59
    山地坡中Middle part of mountain slope 0.54
    山地坡上Upper part of mountain slope 0.43
    质地构型
    Texture configuration
    上松下紧型Upper loose lower tight 1.00
    海绵型Spongy 0.94
    夹层型Sandwich 0.63
    紧实型Compact 0.59
    上紧下松型Upper tight lower loose 0.53
    薄层型Thin layer 0.52
    松散型Loose 0.38
    灌溉能力
    Irrigation capacity
    充分满足Fully satisfy 1.00
    满足Satisfy 0.85
    基本满足Basically satisfy 0.61
    不满足Not satisfy 0.40
    清洁程度
    Cleaning degree
    清洁Cleaning 1.00
    尚清洁Still cleaning 0.72
    障碍因素
    Obstacle factor
    无Nothing 1.00
    障碍层次Obstacle layer 0.71
    渍潜Waterlog 0.65
    瘠薄Barren 0.56
    酸化Acidification 0.55
    盐碱Saline-alkaline 0.40
    耕层质地
    Arable layer texture
    中壤Medium loam 1.00
    轻壤Light loam 0.88
    重壤Heavy loam 0.84
    砂壤Sandy loam 0.71
    黏土Clay soil 0.60
    砂土Sandy soil 0.48
    生物多样性
    Biodiversity
    丰富Abundant 1.00
    一般General 0.69
    不丰富Deficient 0.41
    农田林网化程度
    Degree of field forest network
    高High 1.00
    中Middle 0.79
    低Low 0.53
    排水能力
    Drainage capability
    充分满足Fully satisfy 1.00
    满足Satisfy 0.83
    基本满足Basically satisfy 0.59
    不满足Not satisfy 0.30
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  东北典型黑土区耕地质量综合指数分级

    Table  4.   Classification of comprehensive index of cultivated land quality in typical black soil areas in Northeast China

    耕地质量
    Cultivated land quality
    等级
    Grade
    耕地质量综合指数
    Integrated fertility index
    高等
    High quality
    1 > 0.828 4
    2 0.807 0~0.828 4
    3 0.785 6~0.807 0
    中等
    Medium quality
    4 0.764 2~0.785 6
    5 0.742 8~0.764 2
    6 0.721 4~0.742 8
    低等
    Low quality
    7 0.700 0~0.721 4
    8 0.678 6~0.700 0
    9 0.657 2~0.678 6
    10 ≤0.657 2
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  2008和2018年东北典型黑土区不同质量等级耕地面积及占比

    Table  5.   Areas and proportions of different quality grades of cultivated land in the typical black soil areas in Northeast China in 2008 and 2018

    等级
    Grade
    2008 2018
    面积
    Area (104hm2)
    占比
    Percent (%)
    面积
    Area (104hm2)
    占比
    Percent (%)
    高等地
    High level
    1 26.72 3.22 63.26 7.62
    2 39.34 4.73 113.94 13.72
    3 75.08 9.04 163.95 19.75
    中等地
    Medium level
    4 147.09 17.72 201.79 24.30
    5 185.92 22.39 146.12 17.60
    6 167.78 20.21 70.56 8.50
    低等地
    Low level
    7 116.72 14.06 50.73 6.11
    8 55.43 6.68 17.35 2.09
    9 13.22 1.59 2.22 0.27
    10 2.96 0.36 0.34 0.04
    总计Total 830.26 100.00 830.26 100.00
    平均质量等级
    Average grade
    5.14 3.92
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  2008—2018年间东北典型黑土区耕地质量等级变化面积对比

    Table  6.   Comparison of area changes of cultivated land quality grades in the typical black soil region of Northeast China from 2008 to 2018

    等级变化
    Grade change
    面积
    Area (104hm2)
    占比
    Percentage (%)
    -8 0.01 0.00
    -7 2.20 0.27
    -6 8.48 1.02
    -5 22.10 2.66
    -4 66.74 8.04
    -3 116.99 14.09
    -2 140.51 16.92
    -1 183.11 22.05
    0 136.79 16.48
    1 89.95 10.83
    2 37.22 4.48
    3 17.03 2.05
    4 5.93 0.71
    5 2.88 0.35
    6 0.24 0.03
    7 0.08 0.01
    等级变化负值表示耕地质量等级提升, 正值表示等级下降。The negative values of grade change means increase of cultivated land quality, while positive value means the decline of cultivated land quality grade.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  7  东北典型黑土区不同等级耕地典型地块实地调查信息对照

    Table  7.   Field survey information of typical plots of different quality grades of cultivated land in the typical black soil region of Northeast China

    地点
    Location
    评价等级
    Grade
    有效磷
    Available P (mg·kg-1)
    有效土层厚度
    Effective soil layer thickness (cm)
    耕层厚度
    Arable layer thickness (cm)
    地形部位
    Terrain position
    pH 灌溉能力
    Irrigation capacity
    有机质
    Organic matter (g·kg-1)
    耕层质地
    Arable layer texture
    梨树县Lishu County 1 60.86 100 22.00 平原中阶Middle plain terrace 7.24 满足Satisfy 35.15 中壤Medium loam
    兰西县Lanxi County 2 48.99 96 17.25 平原中阶Middle plain terrace 7.51 满足Satisfy 27.40 中壤Medium loam
    望奎县Wangkui County 3 43.64 100 18.90 丘陵下部Lower part of hill 6.97 基本满足Basically satisfy 37.40 重壤Heavy loam
    嫩江县Nenjiang County 4 56.41 70 20.01 丘陵中部Middle part of hill 5.76 不满足Not satisfy 55.83 重壤Heavy loam
    拜泉县Baiquan County 5 54.67 79 24.73 平原低阶Lower plain terrace 6.60 不满足Not satisfy 39.85 重壤Heavy loam
    榆树市Yushu City 6 33.72 85 20.19 平原低阶Lower plain terrace 5.42 基本满足Basically satisfy 25.23 中壤Medium loam
    农安县Nong’an County 7 15.67 90 18.23 平原低阶Lower plain terrace 7.80 不满足Not satisfy 28.86 重壤Heavy loam
    巴彦县Bayan County 8 86.71 45 15.41 丘陵上部Upper part of hill 5.64 不满足Not satisfy 37.26 重壤Heavy loam
    北林区Beilin District 9 17.28 34 14.80 平原低阶Lower plain terrace 5.46 基本满足Basically satisfy 30.34 黏土Clay soil
    松北区Songbei District 10 30.23 27 18.89 平原低阶Lower plain terrace 5.64 不满足Not satisfy 29.65 砂壤Sandy loam
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2019-07-02
  • 录用日期:  2019-10-30
  • 刊出日期:  2020-01-01

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