Temporal-spatial changes in cultivated land quality in a black soil region of Northeast China
摘要: 为揭示东北典型黑土区耕地质量时空变化特征，本研究遵循《耕地质量等级》（GB/T 33469-2016）国家标准，在利用特尔菲法选取16个评价指标、层次分析法确定评价指标权重的基础上，建立了东北典型黑土区耕地质量评价指标体系，借助ArcGIS软件对研究区2008年和2018年耕地质量进行同一指标体系和同一分级标准的耕地质量评价，旨在掌握研究区10年间的耕地质量时空变化特征，探究耕地质量变化原因。结果表明：东北典型黑土区耕地质量2008年以中低等地为主，平均耕地质量等级为5.14，2018年以中高等地为主，平均耕地质量等级为3.92，10年间东北典型黑土区耕地质量等级提升了1.22个等级；其中，1~4等地面积均有增加，5~10等地面积均减少，10年间研究区评价单元耕地质量等级提升最多为8个等级，下降最多为7个等级，耕地质量等级提升的评价单元总面积是等级下降评价单元总面积的3.5倍。10年间东北典型黑土区的中西部和西北部耕地质量上升较为明显，而其南部和东北部质量下降的耕地分布较多。本研究规范了研究区耕地质量时空对比分析的依据，合理揭示了其时空变化特征，为该区域今后耕地质量提升工作指明了方向，对今后进一步可持续利用和管理黑土地具有积极意义。Abstract: Temporal-spatial variations in cultivated land quality in a typical black soil region in Northeast China were explored with 16 evaluation indices by means of the Delphi method, with weights determined by an analytic hierarchy process based on the National Standard of Cultivated Land Quality Grade (GB/T 33469-2016). ArcGIS software was used to evaluate the quality of cultivated land in the region using the same system and the same grading standard between 2008 and 2018. The goal was to identify temporal and spatial changes in cultivated land quality in the study area during the past 10 years, and the reasons for changes in the cultivated land quality. The results showed that the quality of cultivated land in the study region was dominated by medium-and low-level land in 2008, with an average cultivated land quality grade of 5.14. In 2018, the quality of cultivated land was mainly in medium-and high-level land, with an average cultivated land quality grade of 3.92. Over the past 10 years, the quality increased by 1.22. The area of first-to fourth-grade cultivated land had increased, and the area of fifth-to tenth-grade land had decreased. Meanwhile, the cultivated land grade rose 8 levels at most, and fell 7 levels most. The area of cultivated land that increased its grade was 3.5 times that of the land that experienced a decrease in grade. The quality of cultivated land in the mid-west and northwest regions of the study area increased significantly, while the south and northeast saw more decrease. This study standardized the basis of a temporal-spatial comparison analysis of cultivated land quality in the study area and revealed temporal-spatial variation characteristics of the study area, providing direction for improving cultivated land quality and sustainably utilizing and managing black soil in the future.
图 1 东北典型黑土区行政区划图
NJ:嫩江县; WDLC:五大连池市; BA:北安市; NH:讷河市; KS:克山县; KD:克东县; YA:依安县; BQ:拜泉县; HL:海伦市; MS:明水县; WK:望奎县; BL:北林区; BY:巴彦县; LX:兰西县; HL:呼兰区; SB:松北区; DW:道外区; BX:宾县; XF:香坊区; DL:道里区; NG1:南岗区; PF:平房区; AC:阿城区; SC:双城市; WC:五常市; YS:榆树市; DH:德惠市; NA:农安县; JT:九台市; KC:宽城区; LY:绿园区; GZL:公主岭市; ED:二道区; NG:南关区; CY:朝阳区; LS:梨树县; TX:铁西区; TD:铁东区; CT:昌图县。
Figure 1. Administrative map of the typical black soil region in Northeast China
NJ: Nenjiang County; WDLC: Wudalianchi City; BA: Bei'an City; NH: Nehe City; KS: Keshan County; KD: Kedong County; YA: Yi'an County; BQ: Baiquan County; HL: Hailun City; MS: Mingshui County; WK: Wangkui County; BL: Beilin District; BY: Bayan County; LX: Lanxi County; HL: Hulan District; SB: Songbei District; DW: Daowai District; BX: Binxian County; XF: Xiangfang District; DL: Daoli District; NG1: Nangang District; PF: Pingfang District; AC: Acheng District; SC: Shuangcheng City; WC: Wuchang City; YS: Yushu City; DH: Dehui City; NA: Nong'an County; JT: Jiutai City; KC: Kuancheng District; LY: Luyuan District; GZL: Gongzhuling City; ED: Erdao District; NG: Nanguan District; CY: Chaoyang District; LS: Lishu County; TX: Tiexi District; TD: Tiedong District; CT: Changtu County.