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1960—2018年中国玉米生育期及各生育阶段水热条件时空变化特征

刘行 张晓龙 王艺璇 郭英 罗建美 沈彦军

刘行, 张晓龙, 王艺璇, 郭英, 罗建美, 沈彦军. 1960—2018年中国玉米生育期及各生育阶段水热条件时空变化特征[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2021, 29(8): 1417-1429. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.201009
引用本文: 刘行, 张晓龙, 王艺璇, 郭英, 罗建美, 沈彦军. 1960—2018年中国玉米生育期及各生育阶段水热条件时空变化特征[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2021, 29(8): 1417-1429. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.201009
LIU Hang, ZHANG Xiaolong, WANG Yixuan, GUO Ying, LUO Jianmei, SHEN Yanjun. Spatio-temporal characteristics of the hydrothermal conditions in the growth period and various gro wth stages of maize in China from 1960 to 2018[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2021, 29(8): 1417-1429. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.201009
Citation: LIU Hang, ZHANG Xiaolong, WANG Yixuan, GUO Ying, LUO Jianmei, SHEN Yanjun. Spatio-temporal characteristics of the hydrothermal conditions in the growth period and various gro wth stages of maize in China from 1960 to 2018[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2021, 29(8): 1417-1429. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.201009

1960—2018年中国玉米生育期及各生育阶段水热条件时空变化特征

doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.201009
基金项目: 

中国科学院农业水资源重点实验室重点方向培育项目 42001037

国家自然科学基金项目 41807157

详细信息
    作者简介:

    刘行, 主要从事气候变化对农业产量的影响研究。E-mail: liuhang.950923@foxmail.com

    通讯作者:

    沈彦军, 主要从事流域生态水文模拟与水环境管理方向研究。E-mail: shenyanjun@sjziam.ac.cn

  • 中图分类号: S162.3

Spatio-temporal characteristics of the hydrothermal conditions in the growth period and various gro wth stages of maize in China from 1960 to 2018

Funds: 

the Key Cultivation Project of the Key Laboratory of Agricultural Water Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences 42001037

the National Natural Science Foundation of China 41807157

More Information
  • 摘要: 水热条件是影响作物分布与农业生产的重要因素。玉米不仅是我国重要的粮食作物,同时也是重要的饲料作物和能源作物,探讨其生育期及各生育阶段水热条件的时空变化特征对农业应对气候变化带来的风险及粮食安全具有重要意义。本文选取平均温度(Tmean)、生长度日(GDD)、高温度日(KDD)、日照时数(SD)、有效降水(Pe)和灌溉需水量(IR)为水热条件指标,基于全国422个气象站点和292个农气站点观测数据,采用趋势和空间分析方法,揭示了1960—2018年中国九大玉米种植区玉米全生育期及各生育阶段水热条件的时空变化特征。结果表明,玉米生育期Tmean、GDD的增幅分别为0.18~0.36℃·(10a)-1和5.73~41.23℃·(10a)-1,东北、甘新区、黄淮海平原和黄土高原等种植区增加最显著。生育期KDD的高值区主要集中在黄淮海平原和甘新地区;除黄淮海平原西南局部区域呈不显著下降趋势外,其他地区呈增加趋势;且KDD的增加主要集中在苗期到花粒期。玉米生育期SD整体表现为显著下降趋势,其中黄淮海平原和黄土高原地区玉米各生育阶段均存在显著下降趋势,花粒期SD下降最明显。玉米生育期Pe和IR变化趋势总体上不显著但空间差异明显;除甘新区和内蒙Pe呈现不显著增加趋势外,全国大部分玉米种植区Pe呈不显著减少趋势。生育期IR在南疆及黄淮海平原西南部呈不显著减少、东北东南部不显著增加趋势;从各生育阶段来看,黄淮海平原区及东北地区Pe在穗期和花粒期减少且IR相对增加,黄淮海平原区及黄土高原西部的IR分别在播期和苗期呈现减少趋势。总体来看,全国玉米生育期热量资源有增加趋势,光照资源减少,有效降水和灌溉需水量的变化趋势不明显,但是各生育阶段及区域间水热条件变化差异明显,如黄淮海平原和黄土高原地区苗期到花粒期KDD增加显著但SD下降,高温胁迫可能会对玉米生长产生负影响,同时影响对水分的消耗。因此,未来研究更应该关注生育阶段的水热条件变化以及极端情况对玉米生长的影响。
  • 图  1  中国九大农业种植区(a)和玉米种植面积、气象和农业站点(b)分布

    Figure  1.  Distribution of nine agricultural planting areas (a) and maize planting areas, meteorological and agricultural observation stations (b) in China

    图  2  1960—2018年玉米生育期平均温度(Tmean)、生长度日(GDD)、高温度日(KDD)多年均值及变化趋势的空间分布

    a-c为各因子多年均值图, 图中棕色线为各因子等值线; d-f为各因子多年变化趋势图, 其中SN代表通过显著性检验的站点(P < 0.05)。

    Figure  2.  Spatial distributions of annual averages and trends of mean temperature (Tmean), growing degree days (GDD), killing degree days (KDD) during growth period of maize from 1960 to 2018

    Figure a-c are maps of annual means of indicators, in which the brown line is contour line. Figure d-f are maps of trends of indicators, in which SN indicates significant changes (P < 0.05).

    图  3  1960—2018年玉米生育期日照时数(SD)、有效降水(Pe)、灌溉需水量(IR)多年均值及变化趋势空间分布

    a-c为各因子多年均值图, 图中棕色线为各因子等值线; d-f为各因子多年变化趋势图, 其中SN代表通过显著性检验的站点(P < 0.05)。

    Figure  3.  Spatial distributions of annual average and trends of sunshine duration (SD), effective precipitation (Pe) and irrigation water demand (IR) during growth period of maize from 1960 to 2018

    Figure a-c are maps of annual means of indicators, in which the brown line is contour line. Figure d-f are maps of trends of indicators, in which SN indicates significant changes (P < 0.05).

    图  4  1960—2018年玉米播种期、苗期、穗期、花粒期生长度日(GDD)多年均值及变化趋势空间分布

    a-d为GDD多年均值图, 图中棕色线为GDD等值线; e-h为GDD多年变化趋势图, 其中SN代表通过显著性检验的站点(P < 0.05)。

    Figure  4.  Spatial distributions of annual average and trend of growing degree days (GDD) in sowing period, seedling period, ear period and flowering to maturity period of maize from 1960 to 2018

    Figure a-d are maps of annual means of GDD, in which the brown line is contour line. Figure e-h are maps of GDD trends, in which SN indicates significant changes (P < 0.05).

    图  5  1960—2018年玉米播种期、苗期、穗期、花粒期高温度日(KDD)多年均值及变化趋势空间分布

    a-d为KDD多年均值图, 图中棕色线为KDD等值线; e-h为KDD多年变化趋势图, 其中SN代表通过显著性检验的站点(P < 0.05)。

    Figure  5.  Spatial distributions of annual average and trend of killing degree days (KDD) in sowing period, seedling period, ear period and flowering to maturity period of maize from 1960 to 2018

    Figure a-d are maps of annual means of KDD, in which the brown line is contour line. Figure e-h are maps of KDD trends, in which SN indicates significant changes (P < 0.05).

    图  6  1960—2018年玉米播种期、苗期、穗期、花粒期光照时数(SD)多年均值及变化趋势空间分布

    a-d为SD多年均值图, 图中棕色线为SD等值线; e-h为SD多年变化趋势图, 其中SN代表通过显著性检验的站点(P < 0.05)。

    Figure  6.  Spatial distributions of annual average and trend of sunshine duration (SD) in sowing period, seedling period, ear period and flowering to maturity period of maize from 1960 to 2018

    Figure a-d are maps of annual means of SD, in which the brown line is contour line. Figure e-h are maps of SD trends, in which SN indicates significant changes (P < 0.05).

    图  7  1960—2018年玉米播种期、苗期、穗期、花粒期有效降水(Pe)多年均值及变化趋势空间分布

    a-d为Pe多年均值图, 图中棕色线为Pe等值线; e-h为Pe多年变化趋势图, 其中SN代表通过显著性检验的站点(P < 0.05)。

    Figure  7.  Spatial distributions of annual average and trend of effective precipitation (Pe) in sowing period, seedling period, ear period and flowering to maturity period of maize from 1960 to 2018

    Figure a-d are maps of annual means of Pe, in which the brown line is contour line. Figure e-h are maps of Pe trends, in which SN indicates significant changes (P < 0.05).

    图  8  1960—2018年玉米播种期、苗期、穗期、花粒期灌溉需水量(IR)多年均值及变化趋势空间分布

    a-d为IR多年均值图, 图中棕色线为IR等值线; e-h为IR多年变化趋势图, 其中SN代表通过显著性检验的站点(P < 0.05)。

    Figure  8.  Spatial distributions of annual average and trend of irrigation water demand (IR) in sowing period, seedling period, ear period and flowering to maturity period of maize from 1960 to 2018

    Figure a-d are maps of annual means of IR, in which the brown line is contour line. Figure e-h are maps of IR trends, in which SN indicates significant changes (P < 0.05).

    表  1  中国不同农业种植区玉米生育期划分

    Table  1.   Division of maize growth periods in different regions of China

    农业种植区
    Agricultural zone
    春/夏玉米
    Spring/summer maize
    播种期(月-日)
    Sowing period (month-day)
    苗期(月-日)
    Seedling period (month-day)
    穗期(月-日)
    Ear period (month-day)
    花粒期(月-日)
    Flowering to maturity period (month-day)
    东北区
    Northeast zone
    春Spring 04-20—05-10 05-10—06-17 06-17—07-25 07-25—09-10
    内蒙古及长城沿线地区
    Inner Mongolia and areas along the Great Wall
    春Spring 05-05—05-25 05-25—06-25 06-25—07-25 07-25—09-23
    黄土高原地区
    Loess Plateau zone
    夏Summer 06-05—06-20 06-20—07-10 07-10—08-10 08-10—09-16
    春Spring 04-20—05-10 05-10—06-20 06-20—07-25 07-25—09-24
    黄淮海地区
    Huang-Huai-Hai zone
    春Spring 04-20—05-10 05-10—06-20 06-20—07-25 07-25—09-24
    夏Summer 06-05—06-20 06-20—07-10 07-10—08-10 08-10—09-16
    甘新区
    Gansu-Xinjiang zone
    春Spring 04-25—05-13 05-13—06-17 06-17—07-20 07-20—09-25
    夏Summer 06-16—07-05 07-05—08-05 08-05—09-05 09-05—10-03
    西南区
    Southwest zone
    春Spring 04-01—04-11 04-11—05-11 05-11—06-12 06-12—08-01
    长江中下游流域地区
    Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River
    春Spring 03-05—03-15 03-15—05-01 05-01—06-01 06-01—07-11
    华南区
    Southern zone
    春Spring 02-25—03-05 03-05—04-01 04-01—05-01 05-01—06-11
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2020-12-27
  • 录用日期:  2021-03-09
  • 刊出日期:  2021-08-01

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