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春灌一水时间对冬小麦灌浆特性和水分利用效率的影响

刘志良 李晓爽 曹彩云 郑春莲 马俊永 李科江 杨会英 李树宁 党红凯

刘志良, 李晓爽, 曹彩云, 郑春莲, 马俊永, 李科江, 杨会英, 李树宁, 党红凯. 春灌一水时间对冬小麦灌浆特性和水分利用效率的影响[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2021, 29(8): 1296-1304. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.201015
引用本文: 刘志良, 李晓爽, 曹彩云, 郑春莲, 马俊永, 李科江, 杨会英, 李树宁, 党红凯. 春灌一水时间对冬小麦灌浆特性和水分利用效率的影响[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2021, 29(8): 1296-1304. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.201015
LIU Zhiliang, LI Xiaoshuang, CAO Caiyun, ZHENG Chunlian, MA Junyong, LI Kejiang, YANG Huiying, LI Shuning, DANG Hongkai. Effects of time of spring one irrigation on the grain filling characteristics and water use efficiency of winter wheat[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2021, 29(8): 1296-1304. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.201015
Citation: LIU Zhiliang, LI Xiaoshuang, CAO Caiyun, ZHENG Chunlian, MA Junyong, LI Kejiang, YANG Huiying, LI Shuning, DANG Hongkai. Effects of time of spring one irrigation on the grain filling characteristics and water use efficiency of winter wheat[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2021, 29(8): 1296-1304. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.201015

春灌一水时间对冬小麦灌浆特性和水分利用效率的影响

doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.201015
基金项目: 

国家重点研发计划项目 2017YFD03009002

河北省重点研发计划项目 18397005D

河北省重点研发计划项目 19226343D

河北省现代农业产业技术体系小麦产业创新团队项目 494-0503-JSN-NIE3

河南商丘农田生态系统国家野外科学观测研究站开放基金项目 FIRI202004-0101

详细信息
    作者简介:

    刘志良, 研究方向为农业水资源高效利用。E-mail: liuzhiliang_1995@163.com

    通讯作者:

    李树宁, 主要研究方向为水资源高效利用, E-mail: lishuning001@163.com

    党红凯, 主要研究方向为小麦节水技术, E-mail: wheatcrop@126.com

  • 中图分类号: S275;S512

Effects of time of spring one irrigation on the grain filling characteristics and water use efficiency of winter wheat

Funds: 

the National Key Research and Development Program of China 2017YFD03009002

the Key Research and Development Program of Hebei Province 18397005D

the Key Research and Development Program of Hebei Province 19226343D

the Wheat Industry Innovation Team Project of Modern Agricultural Technology System in Hebei Province 494-0503-JSN-NIE3

the Fund of National Agro-Ecosystem Observation and Research Station of Shangqiu FIRI202004-0101

More Information
    Corresponding author: LI Shuning, E-mail: lishuning001@163.com; DANG Hongkai, E-mail: wheatcrop@126.com
  • 摘要: 针对河北平原区水粮矛盾尖锐,开展冬小麦春一水优化灌溉研究,可为区域粮食安全和地下水超采治理提供技术依据。本研究于2018—2020年采用田间定位试验方法,以节水小麦品种‘衡4399’为材料,设置5个春灌一水时间处理(拔节后0 d,AJ0;拔节后5 d,AJ5;拔节后10 d,AJ10;拔节后15 d,AJ15;拔节后20 d,AJ20)和2个对照处理(无春灌,CK1;春灌二水,CK2),分析了不同处理对冬小麦籽粒灌浆特性参数、产量和水分利用效率的影响。结果表明,随着春灌一水时间的推迟,冬小麦灌浆持续时间增长,平均灌浆速率减小,理论最大千粒重增大;与AJ0相比,其他春灌一水处理的灌浆持续时间延长3~7 d,平均灌浆速率减小2.40%~13.51%,理论最大千粒重增加1.61%~18.62%。春灌一水条件下,冬小麦单位面积穗数、穗粒数和籽粒产量随着灌水时间的推迟均是先增大后减小,千粒重逐渐增加,其中,籽粒产量最高的处理为AJ5,其次是AJ10,二者间差异不显著(P>0.05),但均显著高于AJ0、AJ15、AJ20处理(P < 0.05);2018—2019年和2019—2020年,与CK1相比,AJ5、AJ10处理的产量分别增加96.04%和52.18%、90.15%和49.84%;与CK2相比,AJ5、AJ10处理的产量依次降低0.80%和16.75%、3.79%和18.03%。两个试验年度春灌一水处理的水分利用效率,都是灌水较早的AJ0、AJ5和AJ10处理较高,且3个处理间的差异均不显著(P>0.05),AJ15和AJ20的水分利用效率明显降低(P < 0.05)。与CK1和CK2相比,AJ5处理的水分利用效率2018—2019年分别增加20.78%和18.47%(P < 0.05)、2019—2020年分别增加41.07%(P < 0.05)和5.33%(P>0.05),AJ10处理2018—2019年分别增加12.34%和10.19%(P>0.05)、2019—2020年分别增加37.50%(P < 0.05)和2.67%(P>0.05)。综上所述,在试验区冬小麦春灌一水条件下,最优灌水时间为拔节后5~10 d,能获得较高产量和水分利用效率。
  • 图  1  2018—2020年不同灌水处理下冬小麦籽粒干质量积累曲线

    各处理详细描述见表 1

    Figure  1.  Grain dry weight accumulation curves of winter wheat under different irrigation treatments in 2018-2020

    The description of each treatment is shown in the table 1.

    表  1  不同处理冬小麦春季生育期间灌水情况

    Table  1.   Description of irrigation treatments during spring growing period of winter wheat

    处理
    Treatment
    灌水次数
    Irrigation frequency
    灌水时间/灌水量
    Irrigation time (d) / irrigation volume (mm)
    AJ0 1 拔节后0/75 0 day after jointing / 75
    AJ5 1 拔节后5/75 5 days after jointing / 75
    AJ10 1 拔节后10/75 10 days after jointing / 75
    AJ15 1 拔节后15/75 15 days after jointing / 75
    AJ20 1 拔节后20/75 20 days after jointing / 75
    CK1 0 无灌水No irrigation
    CK2 2 拔节后5/75; 开花后5/75
    5 days after jointing / 75; 5 days after anthesis / 75
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  2018—2020年不同灌水处理下冬小麦籽粒灌浆模型参数

    Table  2.   Grain filling model parameters of winter wheat under different irrigation treatments in 2018−2020

    年份
    Year
    处理
    Treatment
    t1 (d) t2 (d) Rmax
    (g·1000-grain−1·d−1)
    Tmax (d) Rmean
    (g·1000-grain−1·d−1)
    T (d) K
    (g·1000-grain−1)
    2018—2019 AJ0 9.73 17.26 2.91 13.50 1.25 26.63 33.3
    AJ5 10.06 18.84 2.64 14.45 1.18 29.77 35.2
    AJ10 9.87 19.27 2.65 14.57 1.22 30.98 37.8
    AJ15 9.82 19.58 2.59 14.70 1.21 31.72 38.4
    AJ20 10.08 20.21 2.57 15.14 1.20 32.82 39.5
    CK1 9.34 18.12 2.39 13.73 1.09 29.05 31.8
    CK2 8.74 18.49 2.88 13.62 1.39 30.63 42.6
    2019—2020 AJ0 9.14 16.26 3.45 12.70 1.48 25.12 37.3
    AJ5 9.18 17.68 2.94 13.43 1.34 28.25 37.9
    AJ10 9.02 17.80 2.90 13.41 1.35 28.72 38.7
    AJ15 8.95 18.36 2.79 13.66 1.32 30.07 39.8
    AJ20 8.98 19.11 2.63 14.04 1.28 31.71 40.5
    CK1 9.29 18.70 2.56 13.99 1.20 30.40 36.5
    CK2 9.07 20.04 2.62 14.56 1.29 33.70 43.6
    各处理详细描述见表 1t1t2分别为两个拐点出现时间, Rmax为最大灌浆速率, Tmax为最大灌浆速率出现时间, Rmean为平均灌浆速率, T为灌浆持续时间, K为理论最大千粒重。The description of each treatment is shown in the table 1. t1 and t2 are the appear times of two inflection points, Rmax is the maximum grain filling rate, Tmax is the appear time of the maximum grain filling rate, Rmean is the average grain filling rate, T is the grain filling duration, K is the theoretical maximum 1000-grain weight.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  2018—2020年不同灌水处理下冬小麦产量和产量构成因素

    Table  3.   Yield and yield components of winter wheat under different irrigation treatments in 2018−2020

    年份
    Year
    处理
    Treatment
    穗数
    Spikes number (×104 spike∙hm−2)
    穗粒数
    Grains number per spike (grain∙spike−1)
    千粒重
    1000-grain weight (g)
    籽粒产量
    Grain yield (kg∙hm−2)
    2018—2019 AJ0 702.42±53.84a 31.44±1.06b 33.22±0.13c 6529.34±203.24b
    AJ5 709.71±51.88a 35.64±0.76a 34.82±0.14c 7688.45±113.47a
    AJ10 682.74±57.46b 35.13±0.97a 36.84±0.15bc 7457.23±210.62a
    AJ15 679.81±55.37b 27.68±0.54c 38.06±0.09b 6352.56±141.31b
    AJ20 679.35±40.62b 26.47±1.14c 38.47±0.19b 6056.04±224.71b
    CK1 582.56±47.81d 22.72±1.13d 31.49±0.11d 3921.78±223.42c
    CK2 620.53±53.62c 35.53±1.19a 41.12±0.15a 7750.64±201.73a
    2019—2020 AJ0 595.42±43.72c 25.29±0.97b 37.15±0.10c 4866.91±103.27c
    AJ5 679.76±58.46a 26.60±1.08b 37.61±0.07c 5943.63±97.84b
    AJ10 681.53±41.75a 25.67±0.95b 38.54±0.14bc 5852.51±182.00b
    AJ15 561.08±38.64d 25.16±0.87b 39.17±0.10b 4672.46±98.75c
    AJ20 560.52±50.23d 24.11±1.14bc 39.71±0.13ab 4722.46±103.62c
    CK1 629.57±52.71b 20.31±1.24d 34.83±0.16d 3905.75±211.70d
    CK2 660.05±58.43a 30.70±1.21a 40.22±0.14a 7139.43±233.21a
    各处理详细描述见表 1。同一生长季同列数据后不同小写字母表示处理间差异达P < 5%显著水平。The description of each treatment is shown in the table 1. In the same growing season, different lowercase letters after data in the same column mean significant differences among treatments at P < 5% level.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  2018—2020年不同灌水处理下冬小麦耗水量来源及水分利用效率

    Table  4.   Water consumption sources and water use efficiency of winter wheat under different irrigation treatments in 2018−2020

    年份
    Year
    处理
    Treatment
    灌溉定额
    Irrigation volume (mm)
    降水量
    Precipitation (mm)
    土壤供水量
    Soil water supply (mm)
    耗水量
    Water consumption (mm)
    水分利用效率
    Water use efficiency (kg∙m–3)
    2018—2019 AJ0 75 133.7 185.2±14.32c 393.9±14.32c 1.66±0.13ab
    AJ5 75 133.7 204.7±15.62bc 413.4±15.62c 1.86±0.05a
    AJ10 75 133.7 223.4±13.78ab 432.1±13.78b 1.73±0.07ab
    AJ15 75 133.7 234.3±16.54a 443.0±16.54b 1.43±0.10bc
    AJ20 75 133.7 242.6±18.18a 451.3±18.18b 1.34±0.12c
    CK1 0 133.7 121.6±20.31d 255.3±20.31d 1.54±0.14b
    CK2 150 133.7 211.2±18.21b 494.9±18.21a 1.57±0.09b
    2019—2020 AJ0 75 124.1 109.2±15.64e 308.3±15.64d 1.58±0.14a
    AJ5 75 124.1 177.6±12.43d 376.7±12.43b 1.58±0.09a
    AJ10 75 124.1 182.0±18.33c 381.1±18.33b 1.54±0.09a
    AJ15 75 124.1 184.2±16.41c 383.3±16.41b 1.22±0.12b
    AJ20 75 124.1 193.9±13.26bc 393.0±13.26b 1.20±0.11b
    CK1 0 124.1 226.0±17.51a 350.1±17.51c 1.12±0.07b
    CK2 150 124.1 201.8±18.33b 475.9±18.33a 1.50±0.06a
    各处理详细描述见表 1。同一生长季同列数据后不同小写字母表示处理间差异达P < 5%显著水平。The description of each treatment is shown in the table 1. In the same growing season, different lowercase letters after data in the same column mean significant differences among treatments at P < 5% level.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  2018—2020年冬小麦产量、产量构成因素、耗水量和水分利用效率的相关性

    Table  5.   Correlation among yield, yield components, water consumption and water use efficiency of winter wheat in 2018−2020

    参数
    Parameter
    穗数
    Spikes number
    穗粒数
    Grains number per spike
    千粒重
    1000-grain weight
    产量
    Yield
    耗水量
    Water consumption
    水分利用效率
    Water use efficiency
    穗数
    Spikes number
    1.000
    穗粒数
    Grains number per spike
    0.532 1.000
    千粒重
    1000-grain weight
    −0.156 0.173 1.000
    产量
    Yield
    0.678** 0.949** 0.312 1.000
    耗水量
    Water consumption
    0.428 0.658* 0.647** 0.791** 1.000
    水分利用效率
    Water use efficiency
    0.590* 0.748** −0.281 0.681** 0.093 1.000
    *和**分别表示在P < 5%和P < 1%水平(双侧)上显著相关。* and ** indicate significant correlation at P < 5% and P < 1% levels (bilateral), respectively.
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2020-12-29
  • 录用日期:  2021-03-28
  • 刊出日期:  2021-08-01

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