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地下滴灌量与滴灌带间距对夏玉米生长发育的影响

要家威 齐永青 李怀辉 沈彦俊

要家威, 齐永青, 李怀辉, 沈彦俊. 地下滴灌量与滴灌带间距对夏玉米生长发育的影响[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2021, 29(9): 1502−1511 doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.210058
引用本文: 要家威, 齐永青, 李怀辉, 沈彦俊. 地下滴灌量与滴灌带间距对夏玉米生长发育的影响[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2021, 29(9): 1502−1511 doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.210058
YAO J W, QI Y Q, LI H H, SHEN Y J. Effects of the irrigation quota and drip irrigation pipes spacing on growth and development of summer maize with subsurface drip irrigation[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2021, 29(9): 1502−1511 doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.210058
Citation: YAO J W, QI Y Q, LI H H, SHEN Y J. Effects of the irrigation quota and drip irrigation pipes spacing on growth and development of summer maize with subsurface drip irrigation[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2021, 29(9): 1502−1511 doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.210058

地下滴灌量与滴灌带间距对夏玉米生长发育的影响

doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.210058
基金项目: 河北省重点研发计划国际科技合作专项(18397002D)、中国科学院国际伙伴计划(153E13KYSB20170010)、国家重点研发计划课题(2016YFC0401403)和国家自然科学基金面上项目(41877169)资助
详细信息
    作者简介:

    要家威,主要研究方向为节水农业与灌溉技术。E-mail: yjwzh13@163.com

    通讯作者:

    沈彦俊,主要研究方向为农业水文与水资源、节水农业。E-mail: yjshen@sjziam.ac.cn

  • 中图分类号: S275.6

Effects of the irrigation quota and drip irrigation pipes spacing on growth and development of summer maize with subsurface drip irrigation

Funds: This study was supported by the Program of Key Research and Development Plan and International Science and Technology Cooperation in Hebei Province (18397002D), the International Partners Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences (153E13KYSB20170010), the National Key Research and Development Project of China (2016YFC0401403), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41877169)
More Information
  • 摘要: 为探究地下滴灌条件下不同灌溉量与滴灌带间距对夏玉米生长发育与耗水特征的影响, 查明地下滴灌对田间尺度水平衡的影响特征, 基于2种灌溉定额(62 mm和35 mm)与3种滴灌带间距(60 cm、80 cm和100 cm)的田间试验, 并以华北典型农田地面灌溉方式为对照, 分析不同处理对夏玉米生长发育、土壤剖面水分分布、蒸散量及土壤蒸发的影响。结果表明: 地下滴灌处理灌溉水主要停留于20~60 cm土层, 灌溉量越高, 湿润范围越大; 相对地面灌溉处理, 地下滴灌处理地表0~20 cm与60~100 cm土壤含水量相对较低。玉米株高、叶面积指数与干物质积累量随地下滴灌灌溉量的增加而增加, 地面灌溉处理可促进株高与干物质积累, 地下滴灌低灌溉量导致玉米生育进程延迟。与地面灌溉处理相比, 地下滴灌处理可在减少22%的灌溉量的条件下保证作物产量无显著下降, 土壤蒸发相对降低30%, 蒸散量相对降低8%, E/ET值由0.34降低至0.27, 灌溉水利用效率提高20%, 收获指数增加10%。不同滴灌带间距处理对玉米生长发育及耗水特征无显著影响。综合夏玉米生长、产量、灌溉水利用效率和滴灌设备投资成本, 本试验条件下最优设计方案为灌溉量为62 mm, 滴灌带间距为100 cm。
  • 图  1  试验地试验期内降雨量、水面蒸发量、平均温度与平均相对湿度

    Figure  1.  Rainfall, water evaporation, average temperature and average relative humidity during the test period in the experiment site

    图  2  玉米生育期内不同处理0~100 cm土壤体积含水量随时间变化过程

    W1为62 mm的灌溉量处理, W2为35 mm的灌溉量处理, D1为60 cm的滴灌带间距处理, D2为80 cm的滴灌带间距处理, D3为100 cm的滴灌带间距处理, FI为地面灌溉80 mm处理。W1 and W2 indicate irrigation volumes of 62 mm and 35 mm, respectively; D1, D2 and D3 indicate drip tapes spacing of 60 cm, 80 cm and 100 cm, respectively. FI indicates flood irrigation with 80 mm volume.

    Figure  2.  Variation process of 0‒100 cm soil volumetric water contents with different treatments during the growth period of maize

    图  3  不同处理下夏玉米生育期内日土壤蒸发量和日蒸散量

    W1为62 mm的灌溉量处理, W2为35 mm的灌溉量处理, FI为地面灌溉80 mm处理。W1 and W2 indicate irrigation volumes of 62 mm and 35 mm, respectively. FI indicates flood irrigation with 80 mm volume.

    Figure  3.  Daily evaporation and evapotranspiration during the growth period of summer corn under different treatments

    图  4  不同处理下夏玉米不同生育期株高、叶面积指数和干物质量

    W1为62 mm的灌溉量处理, W2为35 mm的灌溉量处理, FI代表地面灌溉80 mm处理。不同小写字母表示同一生育期不同处理间差异显著(P<0.05)。W1 and W2 indicate irrigation volumes of 62 mm and 35 mm, respectively. FI indicates flood irrigation with 80 mm volume. Different lowercase letters mean significant differences at P<0.05 level among different treatments at the same growing stage.

    Figure  4.  Plant height, leaf area index and dry matter quality of summer corn at different growth stages under different treatments

    表  1  试验处理设计方案

    Table  1.   Design scheme of test treatments

    处理
    Treatment
    滴灌带间距
    Pipes spacing (cm)
    不同日期(月-日)的灌溉定额
    Irrigation quotas in different dates (month-day) (mm)
    灌溉总量
    Total irrigation (mm)
    灌溉方式
    Irrigation methods
    06-2207-0707-27
    W1D16015173062地下滴灌 Subsurface drip irrigation
    W1D28015173062地下滴灌 Subsurface drip irrigation
    W1D310015173062地下滴灌 Subsurface drip irrigation
    W2D16015101035地下滴灌 Subsurface drip irrigation
    W2D28015101035地下滴灌 Subsurface drip irrigation
    W2D310015101035地下滴灌 Subsurface drip irrigation
    FI8080地面灌溉 Flooding irrigation
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  不同处理下夏玉米蒸散量、土壤蒸发量与作物蒸腾量

    Table  2.   Summer corn evapotranspiration, evaporation and transpiration under different treatments

    处理
    Treatment
    土壤储水量
    Soil water storage (ΔS, mm)
    蒸散量
    Evapotranspiration (ET, mm)
    棵间蒸发
    Evaporation (E, mm)
    作物蒸腾
    Transpiration (T, mm)
    E/ET
    W1 D1 28.89±4.27a 293.90±4.27a 75.62±2.66b 218.28±4.07a 0.26±0.01b
    D2 23.11±4.96a 299.68±4.96a 82.46±1.33a 217.22±5.96a 0.28±0.01a
    D3 22.92±15.96a 299.87±15.96a 76.53±2.46b 223.34±13.62a 0.26±0.01b
    W2 D1 20.83±14.14a 274.96±14.14a 75.997.35a 198.97±15.59a 0.28±0.03a
    D2 22.85±12.29a 272.94±12.29a 74.43±5.30a 198.51±17.34a 0.27±0.03a
    D3 25.94±9.26a 269.85±9.26a 73.69±10.04a 196.16±11.38a 0.27±0.04a
    W1 24.97±9.11A 297.81±9.11B 78.20±3.75B 219.61±8.21A 0.26±0.01B
    W2 23.21±10.68A 272.58±10.68C 74.70±6.84B 197.87±13.04B 0.27±0.03B
    FI 8.57±5.67B 324.22±5.67A 109.34±4.65A 214.87±1.02A 0.34±0.01A
    W NS ** NS ** NS
    D NS NS NS NS NS
    W×D NS NS NS NS NS
      W1为62 mm的灌溉量处理, W2为35 mm的灌溉量处理, D1为60 cm的滴灌带间距处理, D2为80 cm的滴灌带间距处理, D3为100 cm的滴灌带间距处理, W代表不同灌溉量处理, D代表不同滴灌带间距处理, FI代表地面灌溉(灌溉量为80 mm)。同列同一灌溉量水平下不同小写字母表示不同滴灌带间距间差异显著(P<0.05), 同列不同大写字母表示地下滴灌不同灌水量及地面灌溉间差异显著(P<0.05)。NS表示无显著影响, *和**分别表示在P<0.05和P<0.01水平影响显著。W1 and W2 indicate irrigation volumes of 62 mm and 35 mm, respectively; D1, D2 and D3 indicate drip tapes spacing of 60 cm, 80 cm and 100 cm, respectively. FI indicates flood irrigation with 80 mm volume. Different lowercase letters in the same column for the same irrigation level mean significant differences at P<0.05 level among different drip taps spacing treatments. Different capital letters mean significant differences at P<0.05 level among subsurface drip irrigation quotas and flood irrigation. NS means no significant effect, * and ** indicate significant effect at P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  不同处理下夏玉米不同生育期株高、叶面积指数和干物质量显著性分析表

    Table  3.   Significance analysis of plant height, leaf area index and dry matter quality of summer maize at different growth stages under different treatments

    处理
    Treatment
    苗期
    Seedling
    拔节期
    Jointing
    大喇叭口期
    Flare opening
    抽雄期
    Tasseling
    吐丝期
    Spinning
    灌浆期
    Filling
    乳熟期
    Milking
    株高
    Plant height
    WNSNSNSNS******
    DNSNSNSNSNSNSNS
    W×DNSNSNSNSNSNSNS
    叶面积指数
    Leaf area index
    WNSNSNS********
    DNSNSNSNSNSNSNS
    W×DNSNSNSNSNSNSNS
    干物质积累量
    Dry matter accumulation
    WNS**NSNSNS**NS
    DNSNSNSNSNSNSNS
    W×DNSNSNSNSNSNSNS
      W为灌溉量处理, D为滴灌带间距处理, NS表示处理间无显著影响, *和**分别表示在P<0.05和P<0.01水平影响显著。W indicates irrigation treatments; D indicates drip tapes spacing treatments. NS means no significant effect; * and ** indicate significant effect at P<0.05 and P<0.01 levels, respectively.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  不同处理下夏玉米干物质积累的Logistic模拟特征值

    Table  4.   Logistic simulation eigenvalues value of dry matter accumulation of summer maize under different treatments

    处理 Treatment方程 EquationVm (g∙d−1)Tm (d)T1 (d)T2 (d)ΔT (d)R2
    W1D1y=336.24/[1+exp(5.50−0.075T)]6.373.756.091.335.30.995
    W1D2y=322.52/[1+exp(5.84−0.081T)]6.572.556.188.832.70.997
    W1D3y=332.48/[1+exp(5.74−0.079T)]6.672.355.788.933.20.997
    W2D1y=440.83/[1+exp(5.16−0.060T)]6.685.563.7107.443.70.997
    W2D2y=403.55/[1+exp(5.27−0.064T)]6.582.161.6102.641.00.998
    W2D3y=456.40/[1+exp(5.26−0.061T)]7.086.164.5107.743.20.998
    FIy=401.83/[1+exp(5.36−0.073T)]7.373.555.491.536.10.997
      W1为62 mm的灌溉量处理, W2为35 mm的灌溉量处理, D1为60 cm的滴灌带间距处理, D2为80 cm的滴灌带间距处理, D3为100 cm的滴灌带间距处理, FI为地面灌溉80 mm处理。y表示夏玉米干物质积累量; T表示夏玉米播种后天数; Vm表示干物质最大相对生长速率; Tm表示干物质最大速率出现的时间; T1T2分别为Logistic曲线的2个拐点; ΔT表示干物质快速积累持续天数。W1 and W2 indicate irrigation volumes of 62 mm and 35 mm, respectively; D1, D2 and D3 indicate drip tapes spacing of 60 cm, 80 cm and 100 cm, respectively. FI indicates flood irrigation with 80 mm volume. y is dry matter accumulation; T is days after sowing; Vm is the maximum growth rate of dry matter, Tm is the time to the maximum rate of dry matter; T1 and T2 are the two inflection points of Logistic function; ΔT is the days of period of rapid accumulation of dry matter.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  不同处理下夏玉米产量及水分利用效率

    Table  5.   Summer maize yield and water use efficiency under different treatments

    处理
    Treatment
    穗数
    Spike number
    (104∙hm−2)
    穗行数
    Number of
    spike rows
    行粒数
    Spikes
    number
    百粒重
    100-seed
    weight (g)
    产量
    Yield
    (kg∙hm−2)
    水分利用效率
    Water use
    efficiency (kg∙m‒3)
    灌溉水利用效率
    Irrigation water use
    efficiency (kg∙m‒3)
    收获指数
    Harvest
    index
    W1D1614.2±0.8a39.47±1.08a26.93±2.73a8930±342a3.04±0.08a14.40±0.55a0.531±0.020a
    D2613.5±0.8a36.67±4.16a29.03±1.91a8885±79a 2.97±0.05a14.33±0.13a0.528±0.007a
    D3613.8±1.0a38.34±1.46a28.12±2.91a9112±490a3.05±0.32a14.70±0.79a0.526±0.038a
    W2D1614.4±0.8a35.80±0.17a28.33±2.82a8024±544a2.93±0.34a22.93±1.55a0.491±0.051a
    D2613.7±1.4a34.76±0.40a26.56±3.72a8170±329a3.00±0.02a23.34±0.94a0.497±0.029a
    D3614.4±1.7a35.20±1.68a27.13±1.12a8320±461a3.08±0.07a23.77±1.32a0.499±0.006a
    W16 13.9±0.8A 38.15±2.57A 28.03±2.39B 8976±318A 3.02±0.17A 14.47±0.51B 0.529±0.022A
    W26 14.2±1.2A 35.26±1.03B 27.05±2.43B 8171±413B 3.00±0.19A 23.35±1.18A 0.496±0.030B
    FI6 13.7±0.4A 39.00±1.76A 32.69±2.16A 9642±266A 2.97±0.09A 12.05±0.33C 0.478±0.005B
    WNS**NS**NS****
    DNSNSNSNSNSNSNS
    W×DNSNSNSNSNSNSNS
      W1为62 mm的灌溉量处理, W2为35 mm的灌溉量处理, D1为60 cm的滴灌带间距处理, D2为80 cm的滴灌带间距处理, D3为100 cm的滴灌带间距处理, FI为地面灌溉80 mm处理。W1 and W2 indicate irrigation volumes of 62 mm and 35 mm, respectively; D1, D2 and D3 indicate drip tapes spacing of 60 cm, 80 cm and 100 cm, respectively. FI indicates flood irrigation with 80 mm volume.
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2021-01-28
  • 录用日期:  2021-03-26
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-07-13
  • 刊出日期:  2021-09-06

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