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太湖流域稻田管理方式对蜘蛛群落特征的影响

满吉勇 袁凯 陈宝雄 王子睿 刘云慧

满吉勇, 袁凯, 陈宝雄, 王子睿, 刘云慧. 太湖流域稻田管理方式对蜘蛛群落特征的影响[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2021, 29(9): 1467−1479 doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.210081
引用本文: 满吉勇, 袁凯, 陈宝雄, 王子睿, 刘云慧. 太湖流域稻田管理方式对蜘蛛群落特征的影响[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2021, 29(9): 1467−1479 doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.210081
MAN J Y, YUAN K, CHEN B X, WANG Z R, LIU Y H. Impact of rice field management on the spider community characteristics in Taihu Lake Basin[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2021, 29(9): 1467−1479 doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.210081
Citation: MAN J Y, YUAN K, CHEN B X, WANG Z R, LIU Y H. Impact of rice field management on the spider community characteristics in Taihu Lake Basin[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2021, 29(9): 1467−1479 doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.210081

太湖流域稻田管理方式对蜘蛛群落特征的影响

doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.210081
基金项目: 江苏省科技支撑项目(SNG201903)资助
详细信息
    作者简介:

    满吉勇, 主要研究方向为有机农业与生物多样性。E-mail: manjy@cau.edu.cn

    通讯作者:

    刘云慧, 主要研究方向为景观生态与生物多样性。E-mail: liuyh@cau.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: Q149

Impact of rice field management on the spider community characteristics in Taihu Lake Basin

Funds: This study was supported by the Science and Technology Support Project of Jiangsu Province (SNG201903)
  • 摘要: 蜘蛛是稻田重要的天敌生物, 通过改进生产管理方式提升稻田蜘蛛多样性及其害虫生物控制服务, 对推动稻田可持续生产具有重要意义。本研究调查太湖流域有机、绿色、常规生产模式下稻田蜘蛛群落多样性及群落结构和功能组成, 以评估不同生产管理模式对稻田蜘蛛多样性的影响。结果显示: 不同生产方式蜘蛛α多样性指数差异显著, 有机生产稻田蜘蛛的丰富度、多度和辛普森多样性指数均显著高于常规及绿色生产稻田。捕猎类型在不同稻田差异显著, 有机和绿色生产稻田蜘蛛以结网型为主, 而常规生产稻田以捕猎型为主; 3种生产模式稻田蜘蛛体长和飞航能力无显著差异。有机和常规生产稻田蜘蛛群落组成间存在显著差异, 绿色生产稻田蜘蛛群落组成介于有机与常规生产稻田之间, 是这两种生境蜘蛛组成的过渡类型; 有机生产稻田具有较多的的蜘蛛指示种, 而绿色和常规生产稻田蜘蛛群落分布上以广布种与共有种为主, 缺乏特有种。稻田蜘蛛群落组成随水稻生长而变化, 但有机生产稻田蜘蛛丰富度、多度除分蘖早期和拔节期外, 其余时期均显著高于常规和绿色生产稻田。研究结果表明, 相较于常规和绿色生产, 有机生产方式可以有效提高稻田蜘蛛多样性, 维持更强的害虫捕食能力, 对推动该地区绿色发展和生态环境恢复具有重要意义。
  • 图  1  不同生产模式稻田蜘蛛的物种多样性

    Con: 常规生产稻田; Gre: 绿色生产稻田; Org: 有机生产稻田。不同小写字母表示不同处理间在P<0.05水平差异显著。Con: conventional rice field; Gre: green rice field; Org: organic rice field. Different lowercase letters indicate significant differences among different treatments at P<0.05 level.

    Figure  1.  Diversity of spiders in rice fields under different farming systems

    图  2  不同生产模式稻田蜘蛛功能特征(a, b, c)及其主成分分析(d)

    Con: 常规生产稻田; Gre: 绿色生产稻田; Org: 有机生产稻田。Con: conventional rice field; Gre: green rice field; Org: organic rice field.

    Figure  2.  Functional characteristics (a, b, c) and principal component analysis (d) of spiders in rice fields under different farming systems

    图  3  基于非度量多维尺度分析(NMDS)与群落相似度分析的不同生产模式稻田蜘蛛群落组成

    a) m=1: 各样地最小共同个体数; b) m=5: 各样地最大共同个体数。Con: 常规生产稻田; Gre: 绿色生产稻田; Org: 有机生产稻田。a) m=1: the smallest number of common individuals in each plot; b) m=5: maximum number of common individuals in each plot. Con: conventional rice field; Gre: green rice field; Org: organic rice field.

    Figure  3.  Spider community groups of rice fields under different farming systems based on non-metric multidimensional scale analysis (NMDS) and community similarity analysis

    图  4  不同生产方式稻田不同水稻发育时期蜘蛛多样性及功能特征的变化

    Con: 常规生产稻田; Gre: 绿色生产稻田; Org: 有机生产稻田。FNZ: 分蘖早期; FNH: 分蘖后期; BJ: 拔节期; CS: 抽穗期; YH: 扬花期; GJ: 灌浆期; HS: 黄熟期。Con: conventional rice field; Gre: green rice field; Org: organic rice field. FNZ: early tillering; FNH: late tillering; BJ: elongation stage; CS: heading stage; YH: booting stage; GJ: blooming stage; HS: yellow maturity stage.

    Figure  4.  Changes of spider diversity and functional characteristics at different growing stages of rice under different farming systems

    表  1  不同生产模式稻田取样农场的基本情况

    Table  1.   Farming practices of rice in sampling farms with different farming systems

    生产方式
    Farming system
    管理方式 Management method
    施肥 Fertilizing除虫 Deworming除草 Weeding
    有机
    Organic
    有机肥(鸡粪有机肥12 000 kg∙hm−2
    蚯蚓叶面肥1500 kg∙hm−2)
    Organic fertilizer (chicken manure
    12 000 kg∙hm−2, earthworm foliar
    fertilizer 1500 kg∙hm−2)
    昆虫性引诱剂(5盒∙hm−2)、苏云金杆菌+竹醋液(1500 mL∙hm−2)、除虫菊+苦参碱+印楝素(1500 mL∙hm−2)
    Insect attractant (5 boxes∙hm−2), bacillus thuringiensis-bamboo vinegar (1500 mL∙hm−2), pyrethrum-matrine-azadirachtin (1500 mL∙hm−2)
    人工拔草
    Manual weeding
    绿色
    Green
    有机-无机复合肥(1500 kg∙hm−2)
    Organic-inorganic compound fertilizer
    (1500 kg∙hm−2)
    吡呀酮(225 g∙hm−2)、呋硄胺(270 g∙hm−2)、
    甲维茚虫威(150 mL∙hm−2)、氨虫苯甲酰胺
    (150 mL∙hm−2)
    Piramidone (225 g∙hm−2), nitrofuran
    (270 g∙hm−2), mevindoxacarb (150 mL∙hm−2), amphetamine (150 mL∙hm−2)
    苄嘧丙草胺(1500 mL∙hm−2)、五氟氰氟草酯
    (900 mL∙hm−2)、草甘膦(1500 mL∙hm−2)、精吡氟水草灵(1500 mL∙hm−2)、人工除草
    Bensulfuron (1500 mL∙hm−2), pentaflufen (900 mL∙hm−2), glyphosate (1500 mL∙hm−2), diflufenicol (1500 mL∙hm−2), manual weeding
    常规
    Conventional
    有机-无机复合肥(375 kg∙hm−2)、尿素
    (300 kg∙hm−2)
    Organic-inorganic compound fertilizer
    (375 kg∙hm−2), urea (300 kg∙hm−2)
    吡呀酮(225 g∙hm−2)、甲维茚虫威(150 mL∙hm−2)、氨虫苯甲酰胺
    (3000 mL∙hm−2) Piramidone (225 g∙hm−2),
    mevindoxacarb (150 mL∙hm−2), amphetamine (3000 mL∙hm−2)
    草甘磷(3000 mL∙hm−2)、恶唑酰草胺(900 mL∙hm−2)、氰氟草酯(1500 mL∙hm−2) Glyphosate (3000 mL∙hm−2), Metamifop (900 mL∙hm−2), cyhalofopbutyl (1500 mL∙hm−2)
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  蜘蛛功能特征的类型及标准

    Table  2.   Types and standards of spider functional traits

    功能特征
    Functional trait
    类型
    Type
    单位/等级
    Unit / class
    标准
    Standard
    体长
    Body size
    连续型变量
    Continuous variable
    mm以雌性蜘蛛的最大体长为准
    The maximum body size of female individual
    捕猎类型
    Hunting type
    二元型变量
    Binary variable
    0/10=结网型; 1=捕猎型
    0=weber; 1=hunter
    飞航类型
    Ballooning type
    二元型变量
    Binary variable
    0/10=不具有飞航能力; 1=具有飞航能力
    0=non-ballooning; 1=ballooning
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  不同生产方式稻田蜘蛛指示种及其功能特征

    Table  3.   Indicator species and their functional traits in rice fields under different farming systems

    物种
    Species
    生产方式 Farming systemP功能特征 Function trait
    常规
    Conventional
    绿色
    Green
    有机
    Organic
    体长
    Body size
    捕猎类型
    Hunting type
    飞航类型
    Ballooning type
    Agrocea coreana0.200.000.001.0006.4801
    裂菱头蛛 Bianor incitatus0.290.030.580.0543.6010
    八斑丽蛛 Chrysso octomaculata0.110.050.790.0022.5001
    褶管巢蛛 Clubiona corrugata0.090.070.820.0055.8011
    粽管巢蛛 Clubiona japonicola0.000.000.201.0007.1011
    千岛管巢蛛 Clubiona kurilensis0.020.000.370.2677.6011
    狡蛛属种1 Dolomedes sp. 10.120.130.690.01016.2011
    苔齿螯蛛 Enoplognatha caricis0.000.000.201.0006.3501
    隆背微蛛 Erigone prominens0.100.270.380.6742.1001
    平腹蛛属种1 Gnaphosa. sp. 10.000.200.001.0007.2011
    驼背额角蛛 Gnathonarium gibberum0.090.150.760.0033.0001
    草间钻头蛛 Hylyphantes graminicola0.000.000.201.0004.0001
    四点高亮腹蛛 Hypsosinga pygmaea0.050.190.730.0014.6001
    红高亮腹蛛 Hypsosinga sanguinea0.000.000.201.0004.7001
    卡氏蒙蛛 Mendoza canestrinii0.020.100.850.0019.3010
    底栖小类球蛛 Nesticella mogera0.200.000.001.0002.7001
    猫蛛属种1 Oxyopes sp. 10.400.000.000.2817.7511
    四斑粗螯蛛 Pachygnatha quadrimaculata0.010.100.580.0773.2501
    亚苍白盘蛛 Paidiscura subpallens0.080.010.870.0046.4801
    雾豹蛛 Pardosa nebulosa0.120.000.081.00010.0011
    拟环纹豹蛛 Pardosa pseudoannulata0.400.160.440.3999.0011
    金蝉蛛属种1 Phintella sp. 10.010.000.950.0075.0010
    拟水狼蛛 Pirata subpiraticus0.070.060.820.0068.0011
    类小水狼蛛 Piratula piratoides0.240.080.000.4884.3511
    近缘锯足蛛 Runcinia affinis0.210.230.560.0206.4810
    锥腹肖蛸 Tetragnatha maxillosa0.300.020.420.3219.5001
    华丽肖蛸 Tetragnatha nitens0.190.310.510.17111.0001
    前齿肖蛸 Tetragnatha praedonia0.100.000.101.00011.5001
    肖蛸属种2 Tetragnatha sp. 20.200.000.001.00015.5001
    赵氏肖蛸 Tetragnatha zhaoi0.080.130.460.2084.7701
    球蛛属种1 Theridion sp. 10.070.040.390.3847.7501
    球蛛属种2 Theridion sp. 20.130.020.220.8602.5001
    食虫沟瘤蛛 Ummeliata insecticeps0.230.120.630.0053.5000
    花蟹蛛种1 Xysticus sp. 10.170.220.420.4907.5010
    花蟹蛛种2 Xysticus sp. 20.040.030.510.1086.5010
      当P<0.05时, 说明此蜘蛛物种为指示物种。This spider species is an indicator species when P<0.05.
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-02-07
  • 录用日期:  2021-04-07
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