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华北平原农田关键带硝态氮存储与淋失量研究

陈肖如 李晓欣 胡春胜 雷玉平 倪锐 马林

陈肖如, 李晓欣, 胡春胜, 雷玉平, 倪锐, 马林. 华北平原农田关键带硝态氮存储与淋失量研究[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2021, 29(9): 1546−1557 doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.210087
引用本文: 陈肖如, 李晓欣, 胡春胜, 雷玉平, 倪锐, 马林. 华北平原农田关键带硝态氮存储与淋失量研究[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2021, 29(9): 1546−1557 doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.210087
CHEN X R, LI X X, HU C S, LEI Y P, NI R, MA L. Nitrate storage and leaching in the critical zone of farmland in the North China Plain[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2021, 29(9): 1546−1557 doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.210087
Citation: CHEN X R, LI X X, HU C S, LEI Y P, NI R, MA L. Nitrate storage and leaching in the critical zone of farmland in the North China Plain[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2021, 29(9): 1546−1557 doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.210087

华北平原农田关键带硝态氮存储与淋失量研究

doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.210087
基金项目: 国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFD0800102, 2017YFD0800601)和国家自然科学基金面上项目(41530859)资助
详细信息
    作者简介:

    陈肖如, 主要研究方向为农田土壤氮循环。E-mail: 13051192093@163.com

    通讯作者:

    胡春胜, 主要从事农田生态系统碳氮水循环和土壤生态过程研究。E-mail: cshu@sjziam.ac.cn

  • 中图分类号: S19

Nitrate storage and leaching in the critical zone of farmland in the North China Plain

Funds: The study was supported by the National Key R & D Program of China (2016YFD0800102, 2017YFD0800601) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41530859)
More Information
  • 摘要: 更多证据表明, 储存在深层包气带中的硝态氮在全球氮循环中具有重要作用。本研究在华北平原农田不同包气带深度(2~50 m)分别采集土柱, 分析不同深度土层的硝态氮含量和分布; 从资料与文献收集到华北平原不同省区及其县域的42年(1978—2019年)氮肥投入与农田面积变化数据, 计算不同区域(地下水埋深区域和县域)的农田包气带硝态氮存储量。首次利用区县氮肥投入与对应区域包气带硝态氮存储量的比值, 即存储率(NR), 研究氮肥投入对包气带硝态氮存储的影响程度。结果表明: 1)在2~50 m的地下水埋深范围内, 随着包气带深度的增加, 华北平原农田(粮田与菜地)的单位面积硝态氮存储量也随之增加; 2)在2 m、3 m、6 m、10 m、16 m、25 m、40 m和50 m深包气带, 粮田硝态氮存储量分别占42年(1978—2019年)氮肥总投入量的14%、18%、26%、30%、33%、35%、38%和39%, 菜地硝态氮存储量分别占42年(1978—2019年)氮肥总投入量的15%、20%、28%、32%、34%、36%、40%和41%; 3)进入2 m以下地下水的粮田与菜地硝态氮淋失总量分别为675.65万t和199.56万t, 分别占粮田与菜地42年(1978—2019年)氮肥总投入的13%和14%。本研究表明, 华北平原农业区高氮肥投入导致大量的硝态氮淋失进入包气带-地下含水层系统, 厚包气带对硝态氮截留和存储具有重要作用, 在地下水埋深较浅区, 高氮肥投入提高了地下水硝酸盐污染的风险。
  • 图  1  华北平原研究区域范围及其包气带深度分布

    Figure  1.  Regional scope of the study area in the North China Plain and the distribution of vadose zone depths

    图  2  不同省份在华北平原耕地面积区域42年(1978—2019年)氮肥投入变化

    Figure  2.  Changes of N fertilizer inputs in cultivated land area of the North China Plain during 42 years (1978−2019)

    图  3  华北平原粮田(a)和菜地(b)不同区县42年(1978—2019年)氮肥总投入空间分布

    灰线为地下水埋深等值线, 数字为等值线数值(m)。The gray line is the contour line of groundwater depth and the number represents the value of the contour line (m).

    Figure  3.  Spatial distribution of total N fertilizer input of grain (a) and vegetable (a) fields in different counties of the North China Plain from 1978 to 2019

    图  4  华北平原粮田(a)与菜地(b)不同包气带区域的平均硝态氮存储量

    平均硝态氮存储量为8个不同包气带深度划分出的包气带区域的硝态氮存储总量, 除以对应区域面积计算得到。The average nitrate storage is calculated by the total amount of nitrate storage in vadose zones with various depths divided by the corresponding area of the zones.

    Figure  4.  Average nitrate storage of grain fields (a) and vegetable fields (b) in regions with different depths of vadose zones in the North China Plain

    图  5  华北平原0~16 m各土壤层粮田与菜地硝态氮累积量空间分布

    Figure  5.  Spatial distribution of nitrate accumulation in grain fields and vegetable fields in 0−16 m soil layer in the North China Plain

    图  6  华北平原粮田在不同地下水埋深(2 m、3 m、6 m、10 m、16 m、25 m、40 m、50 m)区域的氮肥投入与硝态氮存储量关系

    Figure  6.  Relationship between N fertilizer input and nitrate storage in grain fields with different depths of groundwater tables (2 m, 3 m, 6 m, 10 m, 16 m, 25 m, 40 m, 50 m) in the North China Plain

    图  7  华北平原菜地在不同地下水埋深(2 m、3 m、6 m、10 m、16 m、25 m、40 m、50 m)区域的氮肥投入与硝态氮存储量关系

    Figure  7.  Relationship between N fertilizer input and nitrate storage in vegetable fields with different depths of groundwater tables (2 m, 3 m, 6 m, 10 m, 16 m, 25 m, 40 m, 50 m) in the North China Plain

    图  8  华北平原粮田(a)与菜地(b)进入2 m埋深以下地下水的平均硝态氮林失量

    平均硝态氮淋失量为不同含水层区域硝态氮淋失总量除以对应区域面积(kg∙hm−2)。The average nitrate leaching amount is calculated by dividing the total amount of nitrate leaching in different aquifer areas by the corresponding area (kg∙hm−2).

    Figure  8.  Average nitrate leaching amount in grain fields (a) and vegetable fields (b) of the regions with groundwater table below 2 m of the North China Plain

    表  1  华北平原不同地下水埋深区域的硝态氮存储与氮肥投入比值(NR值为样本平均结果)

    Table  1.   Ratio of nitrate storage to N fertilizer input at different regions with different depths of groundwater tables in the North China Plain (NR value is the average result of samples)

    地下水埋深
    Groundwater table depth (m)
    县域个数
    Number of county
    硝态氮存储量与氮肥投入的比值
    Ratio of nitrate storage to nitrogen fertilizer input (NR)
    粮田 Grain field菜地 Vegetable field
    0~21360.140.15
    2~31150.180.20
    3~61320.260.28
    6~10640.300.32
    10~16610.330.34
    16~25390.350.36
    25~40130.380.40
    40~5040.390.41
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  华北平原农田硝态氮进入2 m埋深以下地下水的淋失量

    Table  2.   Amount of nitrate leaching from farmland into aquifer below the 2 m depth of groundwater table in the NCP

    地下水埋深
    Groundwater table depth (m)
    面积 Area (km2)NRiNRj硝态氮淋失量 Nitrate leaching (NL,10 kt)
    粮田 Grain field菜地 Vegetable field粮田 Grain field菜地 Vegetable field粮田 Grain field菜地 Vegetable field
    2~352128010.250.2644.6516.18
    3~631 18647530.210.21329.3897.52
    6~1039 33293000.130.13196.4354.26
    10~16896720780.090.0953.0614.60
    16~25931732030.060.0732.7210.67
    25~40602513090.040.0517.485.82
    40~5034866620.010.011.940.50
    总计 Total103 81122 160675.66199.55
      NR为硝态氮存储量与氮肥投入的比值, ij为地下水埋深, i>j。NR is the ratio of nitrate storage to nitrogen fertilizer input. i and j are the depths of groundwater table depth, and i is greater than j.
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-02-16
  • 录用日期:  2021-04-28
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-07-19
  • 刊出日期:  2021-09-06

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