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高温高湿区增密减氮对杂交稻‘内6优107’产量形成和氮肥利用率的影响

蒋鹏 徐富贤 张林 周兴兵 朱永川 郭晓艺 刘茂 陈琳 张容 熊洪

蒋鹏, 徐富贤, 张林, 周兴兵, 朱永川, 郭晓艺, 刘茂, 陈琳, 张容, 熊洪. 高温高湿区增密减氮对杂交稻‘内6优107’产量形成和氮肥利用率的影响[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2021, 29(10): 1679−1691 doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.210288
引用本文: 蒋鹏, 徐富贤, 张林, 周兴兵, 朱永川, 郭晓艺, 刘茂, 陈琳, 张容, 熊洪. 高温高湿区增密减氮对杂交稻‘内6优107’产量形成和氮肥利用率的影响[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2021, 29(10): 1679−1691 doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.210288
JIANG P, XU F X, ZHANG L, ZHOU X B, ZHU Y C, GUO X Y, LIU M, CHEN L, ZHANG R, XIONG H. Effect of increased plant density with reduced nitrogen on yield formation and nitrogen use efficiency of hybrid rice under high temperature and high humidity conditions[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2021, 29(10): 1679−1691 doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.210288
Citation: JIANG P, XU F X, ZHANG L, ZHOU X B, ZHU Y C, GUO X Y, LIU M, CHEN L, ZHANG R, XIONG H. Effect of increased plant density with reduced nitrogen on yield formation and nitrogen use efficiency of hybrid rice under high temperature and high humidity conditions[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2021, 29(10): 1679−1691 doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.210288

高温高湿区增密减氮对杂交稻‘内6优107’产量形成和氮肥利用率的影响

doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.210288
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金项目(31971844)、四川省农业科学院青年基金项目(2019QNJJ-020)和现代农业产业技术体系建设专项资金(CARS-01-25)资助
详细信息
    作者简介:

    蒋鹏, 主要研究方向为水稻栽培生理生态。E-mail: jiangyipeng137@163.com

    通讯作者:

    徐富贤, 主要研究方向为水稻高产高效栽培理论与技术。E-mail: xu6501@163.com

  • 中图分类号: S311; S314

Effect of increased plant density with reduced nitrogen on yield formation and nitrogen use efficiency of hybrid rice under high temperature and high humidity conditions

Funds: This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31971844), the Foundation of Youth Science Program of Sichuan Academy of Agricultural Sciences (2019QNJJ-020) and the Special Fund for the Industrial Technology System Construction of Modern Agriculture of China (CARS-01-25)
More Information
  • 摘要: 探明高温高湿稻区增密减氮对杂交稻产量形成和氮肥利用率的影响, 可为高温高湿稻区氮肥优化管理和合理密植提供依据。本研究以杂交稻‘内6优107’为材料, 于2018—2019年在典型的高温高湿稻区四川省泸州市进行大田试验。试验设6个密度与施氮量组合, 分别为低密高氮(习惯移栽密度16.5 万穴∙hm−2, 施氮量为180 kg∙hm−2, LDNck)、低密减氮15% (LDN−15%)、低密减氮30% (LDN−30%)、增密减氮15% (增密27%, HDN−15%)、增密减氮30% (HDN−30%)和低密不施氮(LDN0)。结果表明: 不同密肥组合对杂交稻产量影响显著(P<0.01)。与LDNck相比, HDN−15%和HDN−30%杂交稻产量分别增加4.3%~4.9%和2.3%~3.6%, 其优势主要表现在每穗粒数、结实率、花前干物质转运量、花前干物质转运效率、花前干物质转运对产量的贡献率和收获指数上。LDN−15%和LDN−30%杂交稻产量较LDNck分别降低2.3%~2.5%和4.8%~5.0%, 较低的有效穗、干物质、花后干物质积累及花后干物质积累对产量的贡献率是其减产的主要原因。HDN−15%和HDN−30%杂交稻花后氮素积累量、成熟期氮素吸收量低于LDNck处理, 但其花前氮素转运量、花前氮素转运效率、花前氮素转运贡献率、氮素干物质生产效率、氮素籽粒生产效率和氮素收获指数均高于LDNck处理, 因而HDN−15%和HDN−30%处理每生产100 kg稻谷需氮量分别减少6.8%~8.4%和9.0%~9.9%。与LDNck处理相比, HDN−15%和HDN−30%杂交稻氮肥农学利用率分别增加36.7%~37.4%和55.5%~60.4%、氮肥偏生产力增加22.8%~23.5%和46.3%~48.2%、氮肥吸收利用率增加5.6%~12.0%和17.0%~20.0%。可见, 在高温高湿稻区杂交稻生产上宜采用栽插密度为21.0万穴∙hm−2和施氮量为126~153 kg∙hm−2的组合。
  • 图  1  2001—2019年研究区水稻生育期月日照时数、平均湿度、平均最高温度和平均最低

    Figure  1.  Monthly sunshine hours, average humidity, mean maximum temperature and minimum temperature during rice-growing season from 2001 to 2019 in the study area

    表  1  高温高湿区不同密肥处理对杂交稻产量及其构成的影响

    Table  1.   Effect of combination of plant density and N rate on grain yield and yield components of hybrid rice under high temperature and high humidity conditions

    年份
    Year
    处理 Treatment 有效穗数
    Effective panicles
    (panicles∙m−2)
    每穗粒数
    Grains number
    per panicle
    结实率
    Grain filling
    (%)
    粒重
    Grain weight
    (mg)
    产量
    Grain yield
    (t∙hm−2)
    代码
    Code
    密度
    Plant density
    (×104 holes∙hm−2)
    施氮量
    N application rate
    (kg∙hm−2)
    2018 LDN0 16.5 0 155.3±13.7c 138.0±4.2c 89.5±1.9a 28.1±0.2b 6.22±0.42d
    LDN−15% 16.5 153 181.4±9.8b 158.8±4.8a 86.5±1.7a 29.7±0.5a 8.31±0.21bc
    LDN−30% 16.5 126 179.2±10.4bc 154.0±3.9ab 88.4±3.0a 29.3±0.3a 8.11±0.14c
    HDN−15% 21.0 153 199.7±9.1ab 148.5±2.4b 90.1±1.0a 29.3±0.5a 8.89±0.11a
    HDN−30% 21.0 126 179.3±4.4bc 160.4±5.1a 90.6±0.9a 29.3±0.6a 8.72±0.37ab
    LDNCK 16.5 180 206.4±22.6a 145.5±6.5bc 86.1±5.9a 29.4±0.9a 8.52±0.70abc
    2019 LDN0 16.5 0 179.2±12.9c 159.3±7.1a 80.9±2.4b 28.1±0.3ab 6.33±0.05c
    LDN−15% 16.5 153 205.4±5.2b 149.3±10.9ab 84.5±1.6ab 27.7±0.6b 8.62±0.25b
    LDN−30% 16.5 126 204.1±21.2bc 147.2±11.2ab 85.4±2.0a 28.8±0.2a 8.38±0.15b
    HDN−15% 21.0 153 237.6±9.1a 138.2±1.8b 84.3±3.1ab 28.5±0.5ab 9.25±0.13a
    HDN−30% 21.0 126 234.7±16.6a 141.1±3.9b 84.9±1.4ab 28.4±0.9ab 9.14±0.23a
    LDNCK 16.5 180 230.2±25.1ab 137.5±2.6b 84.0±3.0ab 27.9±0.5ab 8.82±0.50ab
    方差分析 Analysis of variance
    年份 Year (Y) ** ** * ** **
    处理 Treatment (T) ** ** ns ns **
    年份×处理 Y×T ns ** ns ns ns
      同年同列数据后不同字母表示处理间在P<0.05水平差异显著。*表示差异达P<0.05显著水平, **表示差异达P<0.01显著水平, ns 表示差异不显著。Values followed by different letters in a year within a column are significantly different at P<0.05 level. * and ** mean significance at P<0.05 and P<0.01 levels, respectively. ns denotes non-significance.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  高温高湿区不同密肥处理对杂交稻干物质生产及收获指数的影响

    Table  2.   Effect of combination of plant density and N rate on biomass production of hybrid rice under high temperature and high humidity condition

    年份
    Year
    处理 Treatment 干物质 Dry matter (g∙m−2) 总干物质
    Total dry matter (g∙m−2)
    收获指数
    Harvest index (%)
    代码
    Code
    密度
    Plant density
    (×104 holes∙hm−2)
    施氮量
    N application rate
    (kg∙hm−2)
    开花前
    Before heading
    开花后
    After heading
    2018 LDN0 16.5 0 612.3±30.2c 280.6±44.4b 892.8±60.9c 60.3±0.9a
    LDN−15% 16.5 153 981.7±13.1ab 379.2±24.9a 1360.9±37.3a 54.3±0.8b
    LDN−30% 16.5 126 931.8±35.0b 304.1±53.7ab 1235.9±72.7b 57.8±1.3ab
    HDN−15% 21.0 153 1013.1±44.7a 307.4±28.9ab 1320.5±56.6ab 59.3±1.5a
    HDN−30% 21.0 126 968.2±72.5ab 359.5±105.4ab 1327.8±40.6ab 57.5±2.5ab
    LDNCK 16.5 180 978.5±8.7ab 381.6±29.0a 1360.1±37.2a 55.5±3.6b
    2019 LDN0 16.5 0 846.3±43.8b 299.6±77.9ab 1145.9±38.9d 56.6±0.4a
    LDN−15% 16.5 153 1130.1±10.9a 278.4±34.5ab 1408.5±44.0ab 52.5±2.2b
    LDN−30% 16.5 126 1106.5±26.9a 207.4±74.2b 1313.9±50.7c 56.0±1.8a
    HDN−15% 21.0 153 1137.9±32.0a 337.8±35.6a 1475.7±19.6a 53.3±0.7b
    HDN−30% 21.0 126 1102.8±23.6a 285.7±44.4ab 1388.5±21.2b 55.9±0.4a
    LDNCK 16.5 180 1136.3±14.6a 316.9±46.9ab 1453.2±34.5ab 51.7±0.8b
    方差分析 Analysis of variance
    年份 Year (Y) ** * ** **
    处理 Treatment (T) ** * ** **
    年份×处理 Y×T ns ns ** ns
      同年同列数据后不同字母表示处理间在P<0.05水平差异显著。*表示差异达P<0.05显著水平, **表示差异达P<0.01显著水平, ns 表示差异不显著。Values followed by different letters in a year within a column are significantly different at P<0.05 level. * and ** mean significance at P<0.05 and P<0.01 levels, respectively. ns denotes non-significance.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  高温高湿区不同密肥处理对杂交稻花前干物质转运的影响

    Table  3.   Effect of combination of plant density and N rate on translocation of dry matter of hybrid rice at heading stage under high temperature and high humidity condition

    年份
    Year
    处理 Treatment 花前干物质
    转运量
    TDMHD (g∙m−2)
    花前干物质转
    运效率
    TPDMHD (g∙m−2)
    花前干物质转运
    对产量的贡献率
    CPDMTGHD (g∙m−2)
    花后干物质积累
    对产量的贡献率
    CPDMGHD-MA (g∙m−2)
    代码
    Code
    密度
    Plant density
    (×104 holes∙hm−2)
    施氮量
    N application rate
    (kg∙hm−2)
    2018 LDN0 16.5 0 341.4±73.2c 55.7±11.7ab 54.6±8.8a 45.4±8.8a
    LDN−15% 16.5 153 452.1±15.0b 46.1±2.1b 54.4±2.2a 45.6±2.2a
    LDN−30% 16.5 126 507.3±67.2ab 54.5±8.0ab 62.4±7.3a 37.6±7.3a
    HDN−15% 21.0 153 581.7±30.9a 57.4±3.4a 65.4±3.3a 34.6±3.3a
    HDN−30% 21.0 126 512.7±75.7ab 52.7±3.8ab 59.0±10.5a 41.0±10.5a
    LDNCK 16.5 180 470.6±9.7b 48.1±1.1ab 55.3±2.2a 44.7±2.2a
    2019 LDN0 16.5 0 333.3±74.4b 39.2±6.8b 52.7±12.0b 47.3±12.0a
    LDN−15% 16.5 153 583.2±30.8a 51.6±3.2a 67.7±3.6a 32.3±3.6b
    LDN−30% 16.5 126 630.6±89.3a 56.9±6.8a 75.1±9.3a 24.9±9.3b
    HDN−15% 21.0 153 587.5±25.8a 51.6±1.7a 63.5±3.4ab 36.5±3.4ab
    HDN−30% 21.0 126 628.6±65.4a 56.9±4.8a 68.7±5.6a 31.3±5.6b
    LDNCK 16.5 180 565.3±91.9a 49.7±4.8a 63.9±5.6ab 36.1±5.6ab
    方差分析 Analysis of variance
    年份 Year (Y) ** ns ** **
    处理 Treatment (T) ** ns * *
    年份×处理 Y´T ns * ns ns
      同年同列数据后不同字母表示处理间在P<0.05水平差异显著。*表示差异达P<0.05显著水平, **表示差异达P<0.01显著水平, ns 表示差异不显著。Values followed by different letters in a year within a column are significantly different at P<0.05 level. * and ** mean significance at P<0.05 and P<0.01 levels, respectively. ns denotes non-significance. TDMHD, TPDMHD, CPDMTGHD, CPDMGHD-MA represent translocation of dry matter accumulated at heading stage, translocation percentage of dry matter accumulated at heading stage, contribution percentage of pre-anthesis dry matter translocation to grain yield, contribution percentage of dry matter accumulation from heading to maturity stage to grain yield, respectively.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  高温高湿区不同密肥处理对杂交稻植株氮素吸收积累的影响

    Table  4.   Effect of combination of plant density and N rate on N uptake of hybrid rice under high temperature and high humidity condition

    年份
    Year
    处理 Treatment 氮素吸收量 N uptake (g∙m−2) 氮素总吸收量
    Total N uptake
    (g∙m−2)
    氮素收获指数
    N harvest index (%)
    代码
    Code
    密度
    Plant density
    (×104 holes∙hm−2)
    施氮量
    N application rate
    (kg∙hm−2)
    开花前
    Before heading
    开花后
    After heading
    2018 LDN0 16.5 0 6.2±0.5d 2.5±1.0abc 8.7±0.5d 75.3±4.4a
    LDN−15% 16.5 153 12.6±0.2a 1.4±0.4c 14.0±0.2bc 68.6±0.7cd
    LDN−30% 16.5 126 9.8±0.8c 3.4±0.9ab 13.2±0.8c 70.0±1.7bcd
    HDN−15% 21.0 153 12.4±0.4a 2.1±0.6bc 14.5±0.9ab 71.9±2.2abc
    HDN−30% 21.0 126 11.5±0.5b 2.6±1.6abc 14.1±1.4bc 72.6±1.0ab
    LDNCK 16.5 180 11.6±0.5b 3.5±0.5a 15.1±0.9a 67.6±2.3d
    2019 LDN0 16.5 0 6.4±0.4d 2.8±0.7a 9.1±0.4c 73.3±1.5a
    LDN−15% 16.5 153 11.4±0.2a 2.4±0.6a 13.8±0.5a 69.0±1.0b
    LDN−30% 16.5 126 10.6±0.7bc 2.3±1.2a 13.0±0.7b 69.7±1.4b
    HDN−15% 21.0 153 11.1±0.4ab 2.9±0.2a 14.0±1.0a 68.5±1.9b
    HDN−30% 21.0 126 10.2±0.4c 3.1±0.3a 13.3±0.4ab 71.2±2.1b
    LDNCK 16.5 180 10.9±0.2abc 3.4±0.5a 14.3±0.4ab 64.9±0.9c
    方差分析 Analysis of variance
    年份 Year (Y) ** ns ns *
    处理 Treatment (T) ** * * **
    年份×处理 Y×T ** ns ns ns
      同年同列数据后不同字母表示处理间在P<0.05水平差异显著。*表示差异达P<0.05显著水平, **表示差异达P<0.01显著水平, ns 表示差异不显著。Values followed by different letters in a year within a column are significantly different at P<0.05 level. * and ** mean significance at P<0.05 and P<0.01 levels, respectively. ns denotes non-significance.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  高温高湿区不同密肥处理对杂交稻齐穗期茎叶氮素运转的影响

    Table  5.   Effect of combination of plant density and N rate on nitrogen translocation of stem and leaf of hybrid rice under high temperature and high humidity condition

    年份
    Year
    处理 Treatment 氮素转运量
    N translocation
    (g∙m−2)
    氮素表观转运率
    Apparent N translocation
    rate (%)
    氮素转运贡献率
    N translocate contribution
    rate (%)
    代码
    Code
    密度
    Plant density
    (×104 holes∙hm−2)
    施氮量
    N application rate
    (kg∙hm−2)
    2018 LDN0 16.5 0 2.8±0.8c 56.2±10.5abc 43.1±12.2d
    LDN−15% 16.5 153 6.6±0.2a 60.0±1.4ab 68.8±2.4a
    LDN−30% 16.5 126 4.3±0.8b 51.9±3.4bc 46.7±9.6cd
    HDN−15% 21.0 153 6.4±0.8a 61.4±2.3a 62.0±1.3ab
    HDN−30% 21.0 126 5.8±0.3a 60.1±1.4ab 57.0±1.6bc
    LDNCK 16.5 180 4.8±0.6b 49.2±4.9c 46.5±4.6cd
    2019 LDN0 16.5 0 2.8±0.5c 52.8±4.0a 41.5±9.7b
    LDN−15% 16.5 153 4.9±0.3ab 53.1±2.7a 51.0±3.2ab
    LDN−30% 16.5 126 5.0±0.6a 55.9±2.9a 55.7±9.9a
    HDN−15% 21.0 153 4.8±0.5ab 52.3±3.8a 50.4±3.2ab
    HDN−30% 21.0 126 4.6±0.5ab 54.6±1.4ab 48.2±2.6ab
    LDNCK 16.5 180 4.0±0.4b 44.6±3.2b 43.7±5.1ab
    方差分析 Analysis of variance
    年份 Year (Y) ** ** *
    处理 Treatment (T) ** ** **
    年份×处理 Y×T ** ns *
      同年同列数据后不同字母表示处理间在P<0.05水平差异显著。*表示差异达P<0.05显著水平, **表示差异达P<0.01显著水平, ns 表示差异不显著。Values followed by different letters in a year within a column are significantly different at P<0.05 level. * and ** mean significance at P<0.05 and P<0.01 levels, respectively. ns denotes non-significance.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  高温高湿区不同密肥处理对杂交稻氮肥利用率的影响

    Table  6.   Effect of combination of plant density and N rate on nitrogen use efficiency of hybrid rice under high temperature and high humidity condition

    年份
    Year
    处理 Treatment 氮肥农学利用率
    Agronomic efficiency of
    applied N (kg∙kg−1)
    氮肥偏生产力
    Partial factor productivity of
    applied N (kg∙kg−1)
    氮肥吸收利用率
    Recovery efficiency of
    applied N (%)
    代码
    Code
    密度
    Plant density
    (×104 holes∙hm−2)
    施氮量
    N application rate
    (kg∙hm−2)
    2018 LDN−15% 16.5 153 13.7±2.1c 54.3±1.4d 34.5±3.7b
    LDN−30% 16.5 126 15.0±3.6bc 64.4±1.1b 36.0±3.2ab
    HDN−15% 21.0 153 17.5±2.1ab 58.1±0.7c 38.2±4.5ab
    HDN−30% 21.0 126 19.9±3.2a 69.2±2.9a 43.4±9.5a
    LDNCK 16.5 180 12.8±3.1c 47.3±1.5e 36.2±1.8ab
    2019 LDN−15% 16.5 153 14.9±2.0c 56.3±1.6d 30.7±3.1a
    LDN−30% 16.5 126 16.3±1.2bc 66.5±1.2b 30.5±7.8a
    HDN−15% 21.0 153 19.1±0.9b 60.5±0.8c 31.7±3.4a
    HDN−30% 21.0 126 22.3±1.9a 72.6±1.8a 33.1±5.5a
    LDNCK 16.5 180 13.9±3.0c 49.0±2.8e 28.3±4.1b
    方差分析 Analysis of variance
    年份 Year (Y) ns ** **
    处理 Treatment (T) * ** ns
    年份×处理 Y×T ns ns ns
      同年同列数据后不同字母表示处理间在P<0.05水平差异显著。*表示差异达P<0.05显著水平, **表示差异达P<0.01显著水平, ns 表示差异不显著。Values followed by different letters in a year within a column are significantly different at P<0.05 level. * and ** mean significance at P<0.05 and P<0.01 levels, respectively. ns denotes non-significance.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  7  高温高湿区不同密肥处理对杂交稻每生产100 kg稻谷需氮量、氮素干物质生产效率、氮素籽粒生产效率的影响

    Table  7.   Effect of combination of plant density and N rate on N use efficiency for biomass and grain yield production and N requirement for produced 100 kg grain of hybrid rice under high temperature and high humidity condition

    年份
    Year
    处理 Treatment 100 kg稻谷需氮量
    N requirement of 100 kg grains
    (kg)
    氮素干物质生产效率
    N use efficiency for biomass
    production (kg∙kg−1)
    氮素籽粒生产效率
    N use efficiency for grain
    production (kg∙kg−1)
    代码
    Code
    密度
    Plant density
    (×104 holes∙hm−2)
    施氮量
    N application rate
    (kg∙hm−2)
    2018 LDN0 16.5 0 1.39±0.19 b 103.8±9.0 a 72.5±9.1 a
    LDN−15% 16.5 153 1.67±0.04 a 97.8±1.1 ab 59.8±1.3 b
    LDN−30% 16.5 126 1.62±0.03 a 93.9±6.3 b 61.6±1.1 b
    HDN−15% 21.0 153 1.63±0.05 a 91.3±2.7 b 61.5±1.8 b
    HDN−30% 21.0 126 1.62±0.22 a 95.1±12.7 ab 62.5±9.2 b
    LDNCK 16.5 180 1.78±0.04 a 89.9±1.5 b 56.3±1.4 b
    2019 LDN0 16.5 0 1.45±0.06 b 125.4±2.1 a 69.3±2.9 a
    LDN−15% 16.5 153 1.61±0.02 a 101.8±3.4 b 62.2±0.6 c
    LDN−30% 16.5 126 1.55±0.11 ab 101.3±5.5 b 64.7±4.5 bc
    HDN−15% 21.0 153 1.51±0.02 abc 105.4±0.8 b 66.1±1.0 abc
    HDN−30% 21.0 126 1.46±0.04 bc 104.4±4.2 b 68.7±1.7 ab
    LDNCK 16.5 180 1.62±0.04 a 102.2±5.3 b 61.9±1.7 c
    方差分析 Analysis of variance
    年份 Year (Y) ** * **
    处理 Treatment (T) ** ** **
    年份×处理 Y×T ns ns ns
      同年同列数据后不同字母表示处理间在P<0.05水平差异显著。*表示差异达P<0.05显著水平, **表示差异达P<0.01显著水平, ns 表示差异不显著。Values followed by different letters in a year within a column are significantly different at P<0.05 level. * and ** mean significance at P<0.05 and P<0.01 levels, respectively. ns denotes non-significance
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-05-18
  • 录用日期:  2021-06-30
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-07-14
  • 刊出日期:  2021-10-01

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