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长期添加外源有机物料对华北农田土壤团聚体有机碳组分的影响

孙雪 张玉铭 张丽娟 胡春胜 董文旭 李晓欣 王玉英 刘秀萍 邢力 韩建

孙雪, 张玉铭, 张丽娟, 胡春胜, 董文旭, 李晓欣, 王玉英, 刘秀萍, 邢力, 韩建. 长期添加外源有机物料对华北农田土壤团聚体有机碳组分的影响[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2021, 29(8): 1384-1396. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.210380
引用本文: 孙雪, 张玉铭, 张丽娟, 胡春胜, 董文旭, 李晓欣, 王玉英, 刘秀萍, 邢力, 韩建. 长期添加外源有机物料对华北农田土壤团聚体有机碳组分的影响[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2021, 29(8): 1384-1396. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.210380
SUN Xue, ZHANG Yuming, ZHANG Lijuan, HU Chunsheng, DONG Wenxu, LI Xiaoxin, WANG Yuying, LIU Xiuping, XING Li, HAN Jian. Effects of long-term exogenous organic material addition on the organic carbon composition of soil aggregates in farmlands of North China[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2021, 29(8): 1384-1396. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.210380
Citation: SUN Xue, ZHANG Yuming, ZHANG Lijuan, HU Chunsheng, DONG Wenxu, LI Xiaoxin, WANG Yuying, LIU Xiuping, XING Li, HAN Jian. Effects of long-term exogenous organic material addition on the organic carbon composition of soil aggregates in farmlands of North China[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2021, 29(8): 1384-1396. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.210380

长期添加外源有机物料对华北农田土壤团聚体有机碳组分的影响

doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.210380
基金项目: 

国家重点研发计划项目 2016YFD0300808

国家重点研发计划项目 2016YFD0200307

河北省重点研发计划项目 19226438D

国家自然科学基金项目 41571291

详细信息
    作者简介:

    孙雪, 主要从事农田生态系统养分循环研究。E-mail: sunxue1901@163.com

    通讯作者:

    张玉铭, 主要研究方向为农田生态系统养分循环与平衡及其环境效应。E-mail: ymzhang@sjziam.ac.cn

  • 中图分类号: S153;S154.36

Effects of long-term exogenous organic material addition on the organic carbon composition of soil aggregates in farmlands of North China

Funds: 

the National Key R & D Program of China 2016YFD0300808

the National Key R & D Program of China 2016YFD0200307

the Key R & D Program of Hebei Province 19226438D

the National Natural Science Foundation of China 41571291

More Information
  • 摘要: 土壤有机碳和团聚体对土壤肥力、作物产量、农业和环境发挥着重要作用,是土壤肥力的核心和可持续农业的基础。本研究依托中国科学院栾城农业生态系统试验站18年野外长期有机质物料和矿质肥料配施试验,开展不同施肥模式对土壤团聚体组成以及各组分有机碳在团聚体中分布影响的研究,为阐明不同农业管理措施下土壤有机碳的物理保护机制提供依据。试验共设6个处理:对照(CK)、单施秸秆(S)、单施有机粪肥(M)、单施化肥(NPK)、化肥配施秸秆(SNPK)和化肥配施有机粪肥(MNPK)。利用干筛法将全土筛分为大团聚体(> 2 mm)、小团聚体(0.25~2 mm)和微团聚体(< 0.25 mm)3种粒径团聚体,分别测定不同处理下全土及3种粒级团聚体中总有机碳(TOC)、可溶性有机碳(DOC)、酸解活性有机碳(AC)、惰性有机碳(ROC)和易氧化有机碳(LOC)含量。结果表明:施肥对土壤团聚体分布及稳定性有显著影响,SNPK显著提高了粒径> 0.25 mm团聚体含量和团聚体稳定性;DOC和ROC含量与粒径> 2 mm团聚体含量显著正相关,其对促进大团聚体形成至关重要。不同施肥处理下土壤团聚体各有机碳组分含量存在差异,与传统的单独施用化肥处理(NPK)相比,SNPK和MNPK均显著提高了全土和团聚体各组分有机碳含量,SNPK对土壤有机碳的提升效果优于MNPK。各有机碳组分在团聚体中的含量均为小团聚体>大团聚体>微团聚体,其中,70%以上的各组分有机碳来自于粒径> 0.25 mm的团聚体。在施用化肥基础上增施有机肥(MNPK)和实施秸秆还田(SNPK)提高了LOC在TOC中的占比,使LOC/TOC由CK的11.94%分别增加到14.95%和15.70%。MNPK利于LOC保存在大团聚体中,提高了土壤供肥能力;而SNPK促进了LOC向较小粒径团聚体迁移,增强了其在团聚体中的稳定性,提高了土壤的保肥能力。由此可见,长期实施有机无机肥料配合可以提高土壤碳储量和稳定性,这为全面实施秸秆还田的基础上推行有机粪肥部分替代化肥的养分管理策略提供了理论依据。
  • 图  1  长期不同施肥处理下土壤非水稳性团聚体总有机碳(TOC)含量

    CK: 不施肥无有机物料还田; M: 单施有机粪肥; NPK: 单施化肥; MNPK: 化肥配施有机粪肥; SNPK: 化肥配施秸秆; SCK: 单施秸秆。数据为3次重复的平均值加减标准误。不同小写字母表示同一粒径不同处理间P < 0.05水平差异显著。

    Figure  1.  Total organic carbon contents of soil non-water-stable aggregates with different sizes under different long-term fertilization treatments

    CK: no fertilizer without organic materials; M: single application of organic manure; NPK: application of chemical fertilizers; MNPK: combined application of chemical fertilizers and organic manure; SNPK: combined application of chemical fertilizers and straw; SCK: single application of straws. Values are means±S.E. (n=3). Different lowercase letters indicate significant differences among different treatments for the same aggregate size at P < 0.05.

    图  2  长期不同施肥处理下土壤非水稳性团聚体可溶性有机碳(DOC)含量

    CK: 不施肥无有机物料还田; M: 单施有机粪肥; NPK: 单施化肥; MNPK: 化肥配施有机粪肥; SNPK: 化肥配施秸秆; SCK: 单施秸秆。数据为3次重复的平均值加减标准误。不同小写字母表示同一粒径不同处理间P < 0.05水平差异显著。

    Figure  2.  Dissolved organic carbon contents of soil non-water- stable aggregates with different sizes under different long- term fertilization treatments

    CK: no fertilizer without organic materials; M: single application of organic manure; NPK: application of chemical fertilizers; MNPK: combined application of chemical fertilizers and organic manure; SNPK: combined application of chemical fertilizers and straw; SCK: single application of straws. Values are means±S.E. (n=3). Different lowercase letters indicate significant differences among different treatments for the same aggregate size at P < 0.05.

    图  3  长期不同施肥处理下土壤非水稳性团聚体酸水解活性有机碳(AC)含量

    CK: 不施肥无有机物料还田; M: 单施有机粪肥; NPK: 单施化肥; MNPK: 化肥配施有机粪肥; SNPK: 化肥配施秸秆; SCK: 单施秸秆。数据为3次重复的平均值加减标准误。不同小写字母表示同一粒径不同处理间P < 0.05水平差异显著。

    Figure  3.  Active organic carbon contents of soil non-water- stable aggregates with different sizes under different long-term fertilization treatments

    CK: no fertilizer without organic materials; M: single application of organic manure; NPK: application of chemical fertilizers; MNPK: combined application of chemical fertilizers and organic manure; SNPK: combined application of chemical fertilizers and straw; SCK: single application of straws. Values are means±S.E. (n=3). Different lowercase letters indicate significant differences among different treatments for the same aggregate size at P < 0.05.

    图  4  不同长期施肥处理下土壤非水稳性团聚体惰性有机炭(ROC)含量

    CK: 不施肥无有机物料还田; M: 单施有机粪肥; NPK: 单施化肥; MNPK: 化肥配施有机粪肥; SNPK: 化肥配施秸秆; SCK: 单施秸秆。数据为3次重复的平均值加减标准误。不同小写字母表示同一粒径不同处理间P < 0.05水平差异显著。

    Figure  4.  Resistant organic carbon contents of soil non-water- stable aggregates with different sizes under different long- term fertilization treatments

    CK: no fertilizer without organic materials; M: single application of organic manure; NPK: application of chemical fertilizers; MNPK: combined application of chemical fertilizers and organic manure; SNPK: combined application of chemical fertilizers and straw; SCK: single application of straws. Values are means±S.E. (n=3). Different lowercase letters indicate significant differences among different treatments for the same aggregate size at P < 0.05.

    图  5  不同长期施肥处理下土壤非水稳性团聚体易氧化有机炭(LOC)含量

    CK: 不施肥无有机物料还田; M: 单施有机粪肥; NPK: 单施化肥; MNPK: 化肥配施有机粪肥; SNPK: 化肥配施秸秆; SCK: 单施秸秆。数据为3次重复的平均值加减标准误。不同小写字母表示同一粒径不同处理间P < 0.05水平差异显著。

    Figure  5.  Labile organic carbon contents of soil non-water- stable aggregates with different sizes under different long- term fertilization treatments

    CK: no fertilizer without organic materials; M: single application of organic manure; NPK: application of chemical fertilizers; MNPK: combined application of chemical fertilizers and organic manure; SNPK: combined application of chemical fertilizers and straw; SCK: single application of straws. Values are means±S.E. (n=3). Different lowercase letters indicate significant differences among different treatments for the same aggregate size at P < 0.05.

    图  6  不同长期施肥处理下土壤非水稳性团聚体总有机碳(A)、可溶性有机碳(B)、酸水解有机碳(C)、惰性有机碳(D)和易氧化有机碳(E)富集系数

    CK: 不施肥无有机物料还田; M: 单施有机粪肥; NPK: 单施化肥; MNPK: 化肥配施有机粪肥; SNPK: 化肥配施秸秆; SCK: 单施秸秆。数据为3次重复的平均值加减标准误。不同小写字母表示同一粒径不同处理间P < 0.05水平差异显著。

    Figure  6.  Enrichment coefficients of total organic carbon (A), dissolved organic carbon (B), active organic carbon (C), resistant organic carbon (D) and labile organic carbon (E) in soil non-water-stable aggregates with different sizes under different long-term fertilization treatments

    CK: no fertilizer without organic materials; M: single application of organic manure; NPK: application of chemical fertilizers; MNPK: combined application of chemical fertilizers and organic manure; SNPK: combined application of chemical fertilizers and straw; SCK: single application of straws. Values are means±S.E. (n=3). Different lowercase letters indicate significant differences among different treatments for the same aggregate size at P < 0.05.

    图  7  不同长期施肥处理下不同粒径土壤非水稳性团聚体总有机碳(A)、可溶性有机碳(B)、酸水解有机碳(C)、惰性有机碳(D)和易氧化有机碳(E)的贡献率

    CK: 不施肥无有机物料还田; M: 单施有机粪肥; NPK: 单施化肥; MNPK: 化肥配施有机粪肥; SNPK: 化肥配施秸秆; SCK: 单施秸秆。数据为3次重复的平均值加减标准误。不同小写字母表示同一粒径不同处理间P < 0.05水平差异显著。

    Figure  7.  Contributions of total organic carbon (A), dissolved organic carbon (B), active organic carbon (C), resistant organic carbon (D) and labile organic carbon (E) in soil non-water-stable aggregates with different sizes under different long-term fertilization treatments

    CK: no fertilizer without organic materials; M: single application of organic manure; NPK: application of chemical fertilizers; MNPK: combined application of chemical fertilizers and organic manure; SNPK: combined application of chemical fertilizers and straw; SCK: single application of straws. Values are means±S.E. (n=3). Different lowercase letters indicate significant differences among different treatments for the same aggregate size at P < 0.05.

    表  1  长期不同施肥处理下各粒级土壤非水稳性团聚体百分含量

    Table  1.   Percentage contents of soil non-water-stable aggregates with different sizes under different long-termfertilization treatments  %

    处理
    Treatment
    > 2 mm 0.25~2 mm < 0.25 mm
    CK 34.50±0.34e 38.88±0.70a 26.62±0.42a
    S 40.27±0.72b 36.45±0.42c 23.27±0.92c
    M 42.64±0.36a 34.50±0.17d 22.86±0.24c
    NPK 38.63±0.06c 37.61±0.53b 23.76±0.59bc
    SNPK 40.55±0.28b 38.77±0.84a 20.68±0.57d
    MNPK 36.87±0.84d 38.27±0.22ab 24.86±0.80b
    CK: 不施肥无秸秆还田; M: 单施有机粪肥; NPK: 单施化肥; MNPK: 化肥配施有机粪肥; SNPK: 化肥配施秸秆; SCK: 单施秸秆。数据为3次重复的平均值加减标准误。同列不同小写字母表示P < 0.05水平差异显著。CK: no fertilizer without organic materials; M: single application of organic manure; NPK: application of chemical fertilizers; MNPK: combined application of chemical fertilizers and organic manure; SNPK: combined application of chemical fertilizers and straw; SCK: single application of straws. Values are means±S.E. (n=3). Different lowercase letters within a column indicate significant differences at P < 0.05.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  不同长期施肥处理下土壤非水稳性团聚体的稳定性

    Table  2.   Stability of soil non-water-stable aggregates under different long-term fertilization treatments

    处理
    Treatment
    平均重量直径(MWD)
    Mean weight diameter (mm)
    几何平均直径(GMD)
    Geometric mean diameter (mm)
    > 0.25 mm粒级团聚体含量(R0.25)
    Content of aggregates > 0.25 mm(%)
    分形维数(D)
    Fraction dimension
    CK 1.19±0.003e 0.92±0.005e 73.38±0.421d 2.52±0.006a
    S 1.27±0.014b 1.00±0.018bc 76.73±0.920b 2.47±0.014c
    M 1.30±0.005a 1.02±0.006bc 77.14±0.243b 2.47±0.004c
    NPK 1.26±0.006c 0.98±0.009c 76.24±0.593bc 2.48±0.009bc
    SNPK 1.30±0.003a 1.04±0.007a 79.32±0.568a 2.43±0.010d
    MNPK 1.23±0.014d 0.96±0.016d 75.14±0.797c 2.50±0.012b
    CK: 不施肥无有机物料还田; M: 单施有机粪肥; NPK: 单施化肥; MNPK: 化肥配施有机粪肥; SNPK: 化肥配施秸秆; SCK: 单施秸秆。数据为3次重复的平均值加减标准误。同列不同小写字母表示P < 0.05水平差异显著。CK: no fertilizer without organic materials; M: single application of organic manure; NPK: application of chemical fertilizers; MNPK: combined application of chemical fertilizers and organic manure; SNPK: combined application of chemical fertilizers and straw; SCK: single application of straws. Values are means±S.E. (n=3). Different lowercase letters within a column indicate significant differences at P < 0.05.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  土壤非水稳性团聚体组成(y)与各有机碳组分含量(X)的关系

    Table  3.   Relationship between soil organic carbon content (y) and contents of non-water-stable aggregates with different sizes (X)

    团聚体粒径
    Aggregate size (mm)
    相关系数Correlation coefficient 回归方程Equation of regression R2
    DOC/A AC/B ROC/C LOC/D
    > 2 0.546* –0.002 0.589* –0.082 y=40.897XA+2.920XB+10.869XC+10.723XD 0.762
    0.25~2 0.195 0.263 0.107 0.372 y=32.958XA+4.138XB+13.533XC+22.191XD –0.035
    < 0.25 –0.503* –0.596** –0.500* –0.493* y=41.112XA+3.980XB+13.590XC+19.147XD 0.400
    *: P < 0.05; **: P < 0.01. DOC: 土壤可溶性有机碳; AC: 酸水解有机碳; ROC: 惰性有机碳; LOC: 易氧化有机碳。DOC: dissolved organic carbon; AC: active organic carbon; ROC: resistant organic carbon; LOC: labile organic carbon.
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2020-09-10
  • 录用日期:  2020-12-20
  • 刊出日期:  2021-08-01

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