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蔬菜咸水灌溉研究进展

陈佩 王金涛 董心亮 田柳 张雪佳 刘小京 孙宏勇

陈佩, 王金涛, 董心亮, 田柳, 张雪佳, 刘小京, 孙宏勇. 蔬菜咸水灌溉研究进展[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2022, 30(5): 799−808 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210850
引用本文: 陈佩, 王金涛, 董心亮, 田柳, 张雪佳, 刘小京, 孙宏勇. 蔬菜咸水灌溉研究进展[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2022, 30(5): 799−808 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210850
CHEN P, WANG J T, DONG X L, TIAN L, ZHANG X J, LIU X J, SUN H Y. Review of research development associated with the application of saline water irrigation to vegetables[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2022, 30(5): 799−808 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210850
Citation: CHEN P, WANG J T, DONG X L, TIAN L, ZHANG X J, LIU X J, SUN H Y. Review of research development associated with the application of saline water irrigation to vegetables[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2022, 30(5): 799−808 doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210850

蔬菜咸水灌溉研究进展

doi: 10.12357/cjea.20210850
基金项目: 中国科学院盐碱地资源高效利用工程实验室(KFJ-PTXM-017)和河北省重点研发计划项目(21326408D)资助
详细信息
    作者简介:

    陈佩, 主要研究方向为农田水盐运移过程及调控。E-mail: chenpei19@mails.ucas.ac.cn

    通讯作者:

    孙宏勇, 主要研究方向为农田水盐运移过程机理与调控。E-mail: hysun@sjziam.ac.cn

  • 中图分类号: S607.1

Review of research development associated with the application of saline water irrigation to vegetables

Funds: The study was supported by the CAS Engineering Laboratory for Efficient Utilization of Saline Resources (KFJ-PTXM-017) and Hebei Province Science and Technology Support Program (21326408D).
More Information
  • 摘要: 我国淡水资源严重短缺且分布不均, 开发利用储量丰富的咸水资源对于保障水安全战略具有重要的意义。我国蔬菜种植面积和产量居世界首位, 蔬菜既是产量较高也是耗水量较大的经济作物。如何安全利用咸水资源, 拓宽蔬菜灌溉用水供应来源, 保证蔬菜生产是淡水短缺地区面临的主要问题, 也是当今咸水利用方面的研究重点和难点。因此, 本文从咸水资源利用潜力、咸水灌溉应用状况、咸水灌溉对蔬菜生长、产量和品质的影响等方面对咸水灌溉在蔬菜种植中的高效利用机理、技术及未来发展趋势进行了综述。利用2.4~11.83 dS∙m−1的咸水灌溉虽使蔬菜产量降低6.21%~63.05%, 但蔬菜品质提高6.25%~74.07%, 采用适宜的咸水灌溉调控技术, 优化灌溉策略可提高咸水灌溉的利用效率, 在未来微咸水利用和扩大蔬菜种植面积中可发挥重要作用。
  • 表  1  蔬菜作物耐盐度

    Table  1.   Salt tolerance of vegetables

    作 物1)
    Crop1)
    电导率上限2)
    Electrical conductivity up limit2) (dS·m−1)
    b3)
    (%/dS·m−1)
    耐盐等级4)
    Rating4)
    小型蔬菜 Small vegetables
    青花椰菜 Broccoli2.8 9.2MS
    布鲁塞尔芽菜 Brussels sprouts1.8 9.7MS
    甘蓝 Cabbage1.0~1.89.8~14.0MS
    花椰菜 Cauliflower1.8 6.2MS
    芹菜 Celery1.8~2.56.2~13.0MS
    卷心菜 Lettuce1.3~1.712.0MS
    洋葱 Onion1.216.0S
    菠菜 Spinach2.0~3.27.7~16.0MS
    萝卜 Radishes1.2~2.07.6~13.0MS
    茄科蔬菜 Solanaceae vegetables
    茄子 Egg plantMS
    胡椒 Peppers1.5~1.712.0~14.0MS
    番茄 Tomato0.9~2.5 9.0MS
    葫芦科蔬菜 Cucurbitaceae vegetables
    黄瓜 Cucumber1.1~2.57.0~13.0MS
    南瓜、冬瓜 Pumplkin, winter squash1.213.0MS
    西葫芦 Zucchini4.710.0MT
    笋瓜(小胡瓜) Squash (scallop)3.216.0MS
    西瓜 WatermalonMS
    根茎和块茎 Roots and tubers
    甜菜 Beets4.0 9.0MT
    欧洲萝卜 ParsnipS
    马铃薯 Potato1.712.0MS
    甘薯(红薯) Sweet potato1.5~2.510.0MS
    芜菁 Turnip0.9 9.0MS
    胡萝卜 Suger beet7.0 5.9T
    豆科植物 Leguminosae crops
    豆角(鲜) Beans1.019.0S
    蚕豆 Broadbean1.5~1.6 9.6MS
    黎豆 Cowpea4.912.0MT
    花生 Peanut3.229.0MS
    豌豆 Peas1.514.0S
    黄豆 Soybeans5.020.0MT
    1)表中数据仅是一种指南, 因为耐盐度随气候、土壤条件和耕作方法而变化, 作物经常在发芽期和结籽期耐盐度较低; 2)电导率上限指产量开始降低时根系层盐分的平均值; 3) b 是指电导率超过电导率上限后每增加一个单位电导度作物产量减少的百分数; 4)耐盐等级分为耐盐(T)、中等耐盐(MT)、中度敏感(MS)和敏感(S)。1) The data serve only as a guideline: Tolerance varies depending upon climate, soil conditions and cultural practices. Crops are often less tolerant during germination and seedling stage. 2) Electrical conductivity up limit is the average root zone salinity at which yield starts to decline. 3) b is the reducting percentage in crop yield per 1 dS·m−1 increase when electrical conductivity beyond its’ up limit. 4) Ratings is salt tolerant rank, which is divided into four grades: tolerant (T), moderately tolerant (MT), moderately sensitive (MS) and sensitive (S).
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